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200 13 Addiction Chris Yianni Introduction How should we approach the problem of addiction? I make no apologies for using the term ‘problem’ because social workers will inevitably deal with people who have developed problems due to addiction. In seeking to understand the power inherent in political rhetoric and how this might influence attitude, this chapter will explore one of the main sites of debate when tackling the above question. This debate largely centres on the bifurcation between zero-tolerance and harm-reduction approaches. What is addiction

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73 SIX Addiction, inequality and recovery Jenny Svanberg …addiction is unequally distributed among social groups, flourishing most where the power to resist it is weakest (Orford, 2012: xiii) Introduction In all societies, those in lower socio-economic positions experience worse physical and mental health (CSDH, 2008). Although health improvements have been seen in many countries, health inequalities mean that those in more disadvantaged positions experience slower improvements, widening the gap between those at the top and those at the bottom. The World

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95 5 ‘Internet addiction’: Problematic and excessive internet use and online gambling ‘Internet addiction’: History and background It was the work of Kimberley Young that drew the attention of researchers to investigate ‘internet addiction’. Her first paper (Young, 1996) on internet addiction was a case study of a 43-year- old woman whose husband was seemingly addicted to AOL chatrooms, spending 40 to 60 hours online at a time. It should be noted that at that time internet connections were dial-up connections (computers were connected through the landline

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93 5 Recovery, research and communities: Sheffield Addiction Recovery Research Group and recovery cities Background and rationale In my work in both the UK and Australia, I have been involved in establishing recovery research groups – first, the Recovery Academy in the UK and, second, Recovery Academy Australia (RAA) based in Melbourne. The work of the Recovery Academy is described in detail in a special issue of the Journal of Groups in Addiction and Recovery (JGAR), which was subsequently published as an edited book (Roth and Best, 2013). The Recovery

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247 TWELVE Complexity, law and ethics: on drug addiction, natural recovery and the diagnostics of psychological jurisprudence Bruce Arrigo and Christopher Williams Introduction: the complexity of drug addiction According to most experts, successful drug addiction intervention and substance abuse recovery necessarily requires the use of external constraints and, in some cases, even exogenous forms of coercion (Morgan and Lizke, 2007; Barlow, 2010; Walker, 2010). What this means, then, is that any subsequent manifestation of disorder (ie de- compensation

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161 ELEVEN Professional dilemmas of defining a problem: the case of addiction treatment Joakim Isaksson and Daniel Törnqvist1 Introduction Let us start this chapter with a question: if you had a drug problem, to which profession would you go to seek help? If we think about this question for a couple of seconds, it seems naive, almost provocative in its simplicity. If we live in a welfare state, this is one of the things we should know, and if we do not, we should be able to find out without much effort. However, we do think that this question has to be

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Transforming Identities

Desistance is one of the big news stories of the criminological world. Research suggests that, as ‘offenders’ turn their backs on crime, they often change their identities as well as their behaviour. Yet we know much less about how reforming or transforming identity might be affected by gender, age or ethnicity.

This book focuses on diversity and showcases research from a wide range of authors in the field. It considers the similarities and differences between desisting from crime and recovering from addiction. Taking the desistance and recovery debates in unfamiliar directions, it examines the experiences of change for individuals seeking healthier and more successful futures.

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Joined-up action on the ground

This important and timely report addresses the critical issues of implementation of the newly emerging and long-term public service agenda. The authors draw upon a unique range of research, practice and theory from the fields of community development, regeneration projects, public and private sector management and organisation development, as well as public and social policy.

The authors identify six key issues to be addressed:

developing evidence-based approaches to change - using the research;

recovering from addiction to failing ways of working;

taking community involvement seriously;

getting beyond zero-sum power games and establishing trust;

‘Best Value’: the making or breaking of holistic government and joined-up action;

real change takes time.

Implementing holistic government describes what needs to happen to move beyond the policy and management rhetoric of partnership and consultation to real joined-up action on the ground. Central to this is the creation of empowered front-line professional teams working in partnership with local communities for sustainable quality of life improvement as experienced by local people.

The report concludes with policy recommendations, giving clear direction and support to the translation of rhetoric to reality on the ground.

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Social perspectives

Issues relating to alcohol ‘misuse’ can only properly be understood within their social and environmental contexts. This research and practice based book explores social models of alcohol misuse to offer a sociological approach to its treatment.

Through considering the social meaning of women’s alcohol use, the book challenges current policy and practice in the field. It raises concerns about the political role of ‘treatment’ in making women behave, or to be ‘well’, and aims to develop a new approach to women’s drinking and new ways of aiding recovery, at national and local levels.

With contributions from service users, academics and practitioners, this is essential reading for those studying addiction, gender and the social background to alcohol problems.

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How Governments Blame Citizens for Their Own Policies

Governments have developed a convenient habit of blaming social problems on their citizens, placing too much emphasis on personal responsibility and pursuing policies to ‘nudge’ their citizens to better behaviour.

Keith Dowding shows that, in fact, responsibility for many of our biggest social crises – including homelessness, gun crime, obesity, drug addiction and problem gambling – should be laid at the feet of politicians.

He calls for us to stop scapegoating fellow citizens and to demand more from our governments, who have the real power and responsibility to alleviate social problems and bring about lasting change.

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