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PART III Adjustment Mechanisms

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197 Structural adjustment and mass poverty in Ghana EIGHT Structural adjustment and mass poverty in Ghana Kwabena Donkor Introduction1 The 1980s witnessed the phenomenon of Structural Adjustment Programmes (SAPs) imposed on the African continent with widespread repercussions. By 1993, at least 40 of the 56 countries of Africa were involved in one or another of these programmes. Structural Adjustment Programmes of the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund (IMF) have transformed the realism, if not the interpretation, of Afr ican political and social

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51 Key words costs • cost adjustement • systematic review • decision models © The Policy Press • 2010 • ISSN 1744 2648 re se ar ch A web-based tool for adjusting costs to a specific target currency and price year Ian Shemilt,1 James Thomas and Marcello Morciano Objective: To develop a web-based tool to automate the adjustment of estimates of costs drawn from previously published or unpublished studies to a specified target currency and price year. Methods: A web-based tool was programmed using C#, utilising GDP deflator index values and Purchasing Power

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epidemiologist Anders Tegnell in this respect. Domestic conflicts persisted but were also mediated by the high level of transparency in public matters and ongoing inquiries into responsibility. In terms of policy, the overall stability should lend further support to the fact that a search for natural herd immunity was not the principal factor underlying the Swedish approach in the longer run. There were indeed important legal and practical adjustments to the policies and legal framework, but recommendations and trust continued to play a key role, while elementary schools and

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, adapting to changes in working time and shifts. This demanded a great deal of effort in terms of reconciliation of their professional and personal lives. Moreover, due to the nature of care jobs – often characterised by poor working conditions, low wages and atypical shift times – working time reductions and reschedules may have had specific effects. The objective of this article is to explore the impact of time adjustments on home care providers and on frontline care workers. The focus on temporality pertains to different aspects. First, I examine the changes that

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countries? Methods The present study draws on qualitative data from semi-structured interviews with 42 parents of preschool-aged children in Sweden and the UK. While each country study was designed independently, both studies targeted parents –mothers and fathers – of preschool children. Both studies focused on work–family issues such as parental leave, working time-adjustments, and daycare decisions and, importantly, both included an in-depth examination of the usage of family policy entitlements. The Swedish sample (20) consists of ten mothers and ten fathers

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13 ONE Unreasonable adjustments? Applying disability policy to madness and distress Helen Spandler and Jill Anderson The rights of disabled people are now enshrined in law and reflected in policy at national and international levels. As a result, in many countries disabled people can access financial and social care support, through mechanisms like independent living payments. They are also entitled to reasonable adjustments or accommodations, to facilitate their access to education, employment and goods and services. Although the disabled people

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295© The Policy Press, 2011 • ISSN 0305 5736 Key words: activation • conditionality • unemployment • financial crisis • recession Policy & Politics vol 39 no 3 • 295-308 (2011) • 10.1332/147084411X581808 Welfare states amid economic turmoil: adjusting work-oriented policy Neil Gilbert and Douglas Besharov This article analyses the socioeconomic context within which a range of active labour market policies (ALMPs) were initiated in many countries of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and the extent to which these measures had an

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innovation by local governments, policies spread horizontally among local governments. Some policies are copied precisely, but other policies are adopted by imitation, causing adjustment in many cases. The latter is regarded as a consideration 155 Local governments and policy analysis in Japan after the Second World War type. Local governments adopting the diffusion style do not necessarily copy policies literally. The absorption style of policy analysis is conducted by the national government. When the national government carries out policy formulation while

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I libri 79 J.D. LAFAY - J. LECAILLON (eds.), The Political Dimension of Economic Adjustment, OECD, Paris, 1993, pp. 139. This book is a critical assessment of a two-decade-long history of the structural adjust­ ment programmes, in the light of «positive» public economics. Among the activities of international organizations, attention is specifically drawn on these programmes because they meet with limited or no success, as numerous experiences have shown. Economic conditions in countries receiving credits improved only sligthly, or not at all; the «con

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