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This chapter examines the possibilities of the ‘bystander intervention model’ to explore the decision making of health and social care professionals when detecting and attempting to prevent financial elder abuse. It is often suggested that the cases that come to the attention of professionals represent the ‘tip of the iceberg’. If this is the case, argue M Gilhooly, Cairns, Davies, K Gilhooly and Harries, at various points in the decision making process professionals must be deciding not to intervene. Although this UK study goes some way to explaining why professionals find it difficult to detect financial elder abuse, or fail to act when they suspect such abuse, the study also revealed that many professionals do play safe and act even when in doubt. The finding that ‘mental capacity’ was a key determinant of both certainty that abuse was taking place, and likelihood of intervention, is concerning. Prevention requires that such abuse is detected well before an older person loses mental capacity.

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A Global Challenge

Evidence of widening inequalities in later life raises concerns about the ways in which older adults might experience forms of social exclusion. Such concerns are evident in all societies as they seek to come to terms with the unprecedented ageing of their populations. Taking a broad international perspective, this highly topical book casts light on patterns and processes that either place groups of older adults at risk of exclusion or are conducive to their inclusion.

Leading international experts challenge traditional understandings of exclusion in relation to ageing in From Exclusion to Inclusion in Old Age. They also present new evidence of the interplay between social institutions, policy processes, personal resources and the contexts within which ageing individuals live to show how this shapes inclusion or exclusion in later life. Dealing with topics such as globalisation, age discrimination and human rights, intergenerational relationships, poverty, and migration, the book is essential reading for anyone interested in ageing issues.

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capacity in adult safeguarding decision making. What is the Mental Capacity Act 2005 and how does it apply to adult safeguarding practice? Fundamental to practice with adults at risk is the law that supports their rights to make decisions as adults. The MCA offers a framework that asks professionals and others supporting the decision making of adults, where there may be conditions that affect their abilities to make decisions, for example as a result of mental ill health or learning disability, to promote their rights to decide for themselves or to have decisions

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10 Recovery and resolution Chapter aim In this chapter we will explore the resources and methods needed by adults at risk and by practitioners to move on from adult safeguarding work. We illustrate a range of approaches to recovery and resolution for adults at risk, including mediation and restorative justice, together with access to counselling and supportive interventions or victim support organisations. In this chapter we will explore: • What do recovery, resolution and restoration mean to adults and those working with them? • The impact of harm on adults

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of vulnerable adults or adults at risk. Critiques of these concepts abound, such as the vagueness of the term ‘at risk’ (being at risk of what precisely?); whether the term ‘vulnerable adults’ focuses unduly on individual disability, frailty or impairment; whether the underlying values are paternal or over-protective; whether such terms minimise criminal activity as mistreatment or poor practice (Dixon et al, 2010) and thus deny victims access to justice (Dunn et al, 2008); or if such 46 Debates in personalisation terms unduly focus on individual

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that adult safeguarding exists and how to get in touch, and have the means to do so, such as access to a telephone or the internet. The adult must be able to quickly and simply make contact with an adult safeguarding service and have trust that the social workers or contact centre workers they are talking to will listen to them and help rather than make their situation worse. Adults at risk need to know that adult safeguarding is the right service for them to speak with. 165 REFLECTIVE ACTIVITY Self-referrals How easy is it for adults at risk in your area to

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57 3 Safeguarding, protection and support Introduction Irrespective of where you are working or whom you are working with, awareness regarding your duty and responsibility for the protection of children and adults at risk of abuse, neglect or harm must be to the forefront. Abuse, harm and neglect can take many forms, including physical and emotional abuse and neglect, child sexual exploitation, online abuse, child trafficking and gender-based violence. They occur across the lifecourse as major events, usually with a negative impact on health and wellbeing

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The context of online safety, and its policy evolution, has been dominated by protecting children and young people in online spaces. The statutory focus, such as the UK government’s Online Safety Bill, continues with an approach that looks towards prohibition, rather than empowerment, while ignoring an evidence base that calls for inclusive approaches. Reflecting upon the impact of this policy direction related to adults, the risks associated with being online, for example grooming and exploitation (both sexual and financial), are poorly understood in multi-agency perspectives and are in conflict with the needs of individuals who might be at risk of harm online. With little formal training in adult safeguarding practice, and a dearth of research around adult online safety, professional practice falls back, instead, on personal experience, and biases arise from personal use of technology, which presents challenges to effective and consistent support of adults at risk.

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How Social Workers Assess and Manage Risk and Uncertainty
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Chapters 1, 3 and 5 available Open Access under CC-BY-NC-ND license.

Safeguarding adults at risk of abuse or neglect is a core area of social work practice but knowledge of how social workers make adult safeguarding decisions is limited.

Applying recent sociological and ethnographic research to this area for the first time, this book considers how adult safeguarding practice is developing, with a focus on risk management. The author explores how social workers conduct safeguarding adults assessments, work with multiple agencies and involve service users in risk decisions. The book is essential reading for those wishing to understand how risk and uncertainty are managed within frontline adult social work and how current practice can be improved.

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Government, 2000 ), while No Secrets (Department of Health, 2000 ) was the respective guidance for England. These mirrored the previous Care Act (1990) which applied to both England and Wales ( Chisnell and Kelly, 2019 ). This often meant that adults at risk, requiring preventative support, did not meet a threshold for intervention until they hit crisis point; impacting adversely on the individuals and their families. In England, an updated Care Act (2014) was enacted and this continues to apply only to adults ( Community Care Inform, 2021 ); hence a lack of unified

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