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Introduction Over the past few decades, there has been increasing interest on the part of many policymakers around the world in measures to inculcate ‘citizen behaviours’ among school pupils and HE students. Such initiatives have often been developed in response to: the demise of the welfare state in many developed nations and an associated emphasis on the importance of citizens taking care of their own wellbeing; an increase in the diversity of many countries and an attendant perceived need to strengthen social cohesion; a concern about young people

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211 CHAPTER 13 Is a Citizen’s Income politically feasible?558 In Chapter 3 we reached the conclusion that a Citizen’s Income would be difficult to implement because it might reduce the number of civil servants. Civil servants construct the reports and statistics that ministers read, and it is not difficult to write a report that proves that a Citizen’s Income is an unrealistic proposition. Civil servants are examples of what De Wispelaere and Noguera term as ‘readily identifiable actors with distinctive interests, roles, capacities, and intentions’.559

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187 CHAPTER 12 Who should receive a Citizen’s Income?485 A ‘Citizen’s Income’ is an unconditional, non-withdrawable income for every citizen: but who is a ‘citizen’? – and what does it mean to be a ‘citizen’? This matters, because, as Tony Fitzpatrick has pointed out, ‘the ideological debate concerning [Citizen’s Income] is, at its heart, a debate about citizenship’.486 A ‘citizen’ is ‘a member of a state,’487 but ‘citizenship’ can also have a broader meaning in terms of our membership of a variety of communities.488 Some countries’ residents are

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181 ELEVEN Alternatives to a Citizen’s Basic Income In this chapter we study three proposals with characteristics similar to those of a Citizens’ Income: a Negative Income Tax, genuine Tax Credits and a Participation Income. Tax Credits In Chapter 2 I described a Tax Credits scheme proposed by the UK’s Conservative government in 1972. This was close to a genuine Tax Credits scheme because it allocated a credit that was paid out if there were no earnings, and was withdrawn as earnings rose, up to a break- even point, after which Income Tax was deducted. We

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241 CHAPTER 14 Can we afford a Citizen’s Income? There are two parts to this question: In order to know what we are funding, we shall need to know precisely how large a Citizen’s Income we are attempting to fund. We shall also need to know how to calculate the costs of a Citizen’s Income. Once these questions have been answered, we shall need to study the funding options. How large should a Citizen’s Income be? There are several ways of answering this question: • Ease of implementation: Turning existing tax allowances into a Citizen’s Income, and reducing

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255 CHAPTER 15 Alternatives to a Citizen’s Income In this chapter we study three proposals for reform with characteristics similar to those of a Citizens’ Income: a Negative Income Tax, genuine Tax Credits, and a participation income. (Additional alternative schemes can be found in a website appendix, www.citizensincome.org). Tax Credits In Chapter 3 I described a Tax Credits scheme proposed by the UK’s Conservative government in 1972. This was close to a genuine Tax Credits scheme because it allocated a credit that was paid out if there were no earnings

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In the Introduction ( Chapter 1 ), I discussed the link between children’s participation and children’s status as citizens. Citizens are persons who are able and are given the opportunity to participate in decisions that affect their lives and the lives of their communities. These participatory opportunities can be written into the law, through formal rights to participation. They can also be created in interactions between children and adults. Thus, child protection professionals are in a position where they can help engender children’s fully

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49 CHAPTER 4 How might we implement a Citizen’s Income? I have drawn the following lessons from the history of the UK’s tax and benefits systems: • The proposals that have changed the system have been for identifiable groups of people. • Those proposals that have changed the system have benefited from longstanding and widespread debate and a reasonable level of public understanding of what was intended. • Those proposals that have become Acts of Parliament are those that have not reduced the number of civil servants, and those that have not become Acts

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In the five years since Money for Everyone was published the idea of a Citizen’s Basic Income has rocketed in interest to an idea whose time has come.

In moving the debate on from the desirability of a basic income this fully updated and revised edition now includes comprehensive discussions on feasibility and implementation.

Using the consultation undertaken by the Institute of Chartered Accountants in England and Wales as a basis, Torry examines a number of implementation methods for Citizen’s Basic Income and considers the cost implications.

Including real-life examples from the UK, and data from case studies and pilots in Alaska, Namibia, India, Iran and elsewhere, this is the essential research-based introduction to the Citizen’s Basic Income.

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265 CHAPTER 16 What can a Citizen’s Income not cope with? [A Citizen’s Income] is the fairest way of sharing out rights, roles, obligations and access in our present situation, but it would not give rise to a just society without an equally determined policy commitment to communal resources for sharing in a good quality of national and local life. (Bill Jordan)702 A universal benefit is precisely that: the same for everyone. As we have seen, there are some very good reasons for universalising benefits as much as possible. The higher the proportion of

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