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153 NINE Conflict Case study: Catrina’s story Catrina (Respondent 17) is 19 years old, she was 12 when her parents separated. She found out by overhearing her parents arguing: ‘My mum shouted at my dad, she said she had stopped loving him and was going.’ She describes how initially she ‘thought the sky had fallen in’. She was ‘quite religious and wanted God to make it all better’. After her parents separated she hardly saw her mother for a while; this was because her parents could not agree on the living arrangements for her and her brothers. She recalls

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International Recognition and Response

The use of rape as a deliberate tactic of war is a serious human rights issue that needs to be addressed as a threat to human and international security. This ground-breaking book is the first to analyse its use as an act of war against civilians and international progress away from tacit acceptance toward active rejection of this violation of international law.

Exploring international responses to sexual violence in war, it introduces the main historical facts, theoretical terms and legal developments behind UNSC resolutions on women, peace and security and the emerging practice of international law in this area. It identifies best practice in moving beyond accepting rape in war as inevitable to the recognition of tactical rape as a security concern for women, men, states and the international community.

Powerful testimonies of victims are included to bring the issue alive, making this a much-needed volume for academic and professional communities.

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163 NINE Conflict over public space Laurel Paget-Seekins Introduction Bus Rapid Transit’s (BRT) promise for sustainability is more than improving public transit accessibility, it is also that by design BRT dedicates public space for bus and, in some cases, non-motorised users. Shifting space away from personal cars is a radical act that can have impacts beyond benefits for bus operations. It has the potential to reshape urban development away from car-centred cities. However, achieving this potential will result in conflict. The reality is that

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Outcomes and interventions for children and families

There is increasing government recognition of the importance of early family experiences on individuals in the long term and of how inter-parental conflict influences children’s development. Recognition of the role of such factors early in life is key to helping both policy makers and practitioners promote positive outcomes for children. This accessible book reviews recent research showing how children who experience high levels of inter-parental conflict are at serious risk not only in terms of their own wellbeing, but also in relation to the perpetuation of these behaviours later in life.

It examines the differences between ‘destructive’ and ‘constructive’ conflict and how they affect children, explores why some children are more adversely affected than others, and features the latest evidence on how conflict affects child physiology. Of particular note is the book’s focus on the growing evidence-based literature on conflict interventions within the last decade. A primer for practitioners working with families, policy makers, students and academics, it will show how to improve the tomorrows for children who experience challenging family experiences today.

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The globalized era is characterized by a high degree of interconnectedness across borders and continents and this includes human migration. Migration flows have led to new governance challenges and, at times, populist political backlashes. A key driver of migration is environmental conflict and this is only likely to increase with the effects of climate change.

Bringing together world-leading researchers from across political science, environmental studies, economics and sociology, this urgent book uses a multifaceted theoretical and methodological approach to delve into core questions and concerns surrounding migration, climate change and conflict, providing invaluable insights into one of the most pressing global issues of our time.

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135 EIGHT Conflict and schism … from the beginning, [the second wave of the women’s movement] was not unified: the agenda was various, the disagreements multiple, the discourse diverse – there was no golden age of harmony and purpose. The radical edge was like a magnet, both drawing and repelling the moderate middle, fuelling the energy for change. (Susan Krebs, feminist writer, 1997, p 87) Introduction The patient movement is fragmented and split, and so politically weak (Chapter Three). Conflicts among patient groups and between individual activists make

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Fieldwork Interrupted

This international, edited collection brings together personal accounts from researchers working in and on conflict and explores the roles of emotion, violence, uncertainty, identity and positionality within the process of doing research, as well as the complexity of methodological choices.

It highlights the researchers’ own subjectivity and presents a nuanced view of conflict research that goes beyond the ‘messiness’ inherent in the process of research in and on violence. It addresses the uncomfortable spaces of conflict research, the potential for violence of research itself and the need for deeper reflection on these issues.

This powerful book opens up spaces for new conversations about the realities of conflict research. These critical self-reflections and honest accounts provide important insights for any scholar or practitioner working in similar environments.

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Author: Francis Ward

229 12 Mediating Multilateral Proxy Conflicts Francis Ward Introduction To achieve a mediated settlement, the challenge for any mediator is to ensure a minimal level of consent between the warring factions. To build this consent, the mediator needs to understand the aims and drivers of the parties, and how those drivers can be appealed to (using a combination of carrots and sticks) to craft a mutually acceptable settlement. In a conflict in which the primary actors are backed, guided or even controlled by an external third party, gaining this consent

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One obstacle in the realisation of universal human rights in the world today is the continuing existence of armed conflict. It directly impinges on the most fundamental of rights – the right to life – as well as a host of others: for example, the right to family life, employment, housing, education, health, security, privacy, travel, and so on. While international human rights law (IHRL) is supposed to operate at all times, the reality is that during armed conflict it is often suspended/derogated from, or is simply inoperable in practice. International

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173 5 Conflict zones Introduction Rape is more common in conflict zones. This is linked to the greater use of violence during wartime, the absence of a consistent criminal justice infrastructure, the disruption of informal protections from households and the community, the greater gender imbalance in decision-making in militarised zones, and the specific use of rape as a weapon of war. There is sometimes a division in analysis and policy between concern with the higher rate of rape and sexual violence by a range of men in conflict zones, and the specific

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