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Introduction: criminal justice at a crossroads? Currently, criminal justice in England and Wales feels very much as if it is at a crossroads. The impact of the ongoing COVID pandemic on criminal justice continues to be immense. In January 2021, a joint report by the chief inspectors of police, the Crown Prosecution Service, and HM Prison and Probation Service estimated a backlog of outstanding court cases of close to half a million, with many Crown Court cases already delayed to 2022 and thousands more people stranded in the limbo of remand. Elsewhere

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PART II Crime and criminal justice

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Theory, policy and practice

Multi-agency working continues to be a core focus in criminal justice and allied work, with the government investing significantly in training criminal justice professionals. This fully revised and expanded edition of this comprehensive text brings together probation, policing, prison, social work, criminological and organisational studies perspectives, and is an essential guide for students and practitioners in offender management and other managed care environments. The contributors provide critical analysis of the latest theory, policy and practice of multi-agency working and each chapter includes case studies, key points, exercises and further reading.

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Introduction Criminal justice is the primary vehicle through which criminal law is enforced. Without the mechanisms and state power used by the police, the Crown Prosecution Service (CPS), the criminal courts and criminal punishment agencies, criminal law would lose much of its authority, legitimacy and power. Yet, in enforcing criminal law, criminal justice must engage with its often-outdated discourse. This discourse includes various phrases and concepts dating back hundreds of years, the most important of which are the Latin phrases actus reus (literally

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Introduction: the social construction of crime The notion of ‘crime’ and consequent criminal justice responses have fluctuated throughout history and it is only by understanding the past that the present can be understood. First, though, a discussion defining crime and the social construction of crime is necessary. On first appearance, defining crime appears to be simple, however, this is not the case as the concept of ‘crime’ is contested and contextual. This means that social, economic, political and moral contexts impact on what is and what is not defined

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Introduction Risk assessment is a key competency for practitioners within forensic psychology and the criminal justice system ( Singh et al, 2014 ). In a survey of 2,135 risk assessment practitioners across 44 countries, Singh et al (2014) identified that participants carried out an average of 435.5 formal risk assessments across their working lifetime and a reported average of 34.5 completed risk assessments per week. Despite the prominence of risk assessment within criminal justice practitioners’ daily practice and the potential impact that the outcomes

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From the Corston Report to Transforming Rehabilitation

This insightful book focuses on developments since the publication in 2007 of the Corston Report into women and criminal justice. While some of its recommendations were accepted by government, actual policy has restricted the scale and scope of change.

The challenges of working with women in the current climate of change and uncertainty are also explored, seeking to translate lessons from good practice to policy development and recommending future directions resulting from the coalition government’s Transforming Rehabilitation plans. This timely analysis engages with wide-ranging considerations for policy makers, providers and practitioners of services and interventions for women who offend, and questions whether women should be treated differently in the criminal justice system.

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Introduction The criminal justice system (CJS) is a rather complex concept involving the application of the five main arms of the legal system with many differences across the UK. It starts with Parliament creating laws, the identification of potential offences committed in the community, police investigations of suspects, court proceedings, the imposition of custodial and non-custodial sentences, and detention in a secure environment through to review and sometimes assessment by the Parole Board and eventual release to the community following rehabilitation

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in relation to the criminal justice system (CJS) in England and Wales. It will pay particular attention to imprisonment as a form of punishment, as, in the UK and other places around the world, imprisonment is the most severe form of punishment. It is acknowledged that the ‘pains of imprisonment’ (see Sykes, 1958/2007) are more far-reaching than the person in prison. For example, it impacts on prisoners’ families, including their children ( Shammas, 2017 ; Condry and Mison, 2021 ). Prisoners’ families are not punished in the legal sense, yet they are harmed as a

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Introduction In this chapter we draw together our findings and point towards the future for research on both criminal justice more broadly, during and after austerity, as well as, specifically, criminal justice in Wales. Thus far, we have told the story of how austerity has impacted upon individuals’ experiences of criminal justice, examining thereafter the impacts on criminal defence, particularly that which is legally aided, and on other justice institutions such as the courts, the prosecution and the police. Our focus has been on how criminal justice has

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