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criminal law and religious institutions’ positions in line with each other. It is clear that criminalisation contributed to conservative views on abortion, though this position was not universal. France, for instance, positioned abortion within the framework of family planning as a ‘social practice’ in the late nineteenth century, much earlier than other European countries. This was ascribed to a number of factors, the most common ones being the lack of effective contraceptive methods and 13 Criminalisation the closure of foundling homes, where those facing

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‘scenes’ provides the target for a new wave of stigmatisation and criminalisation of contemporary cultures of intoxication, at odds with official policy supporting the expansion of the night-time economy. 282 ASBO nation The relationship between the individual, the state and the market reflects tensions between leisure-time pursuits in a consumption and profit-oriented society on the one hand, and the criminal justice- driven ‘law and order’ agenda of the government on the other. At its heart is a process of identifying and criminalising certain transgressive

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Critically exploring the work of Loïc Wacquant
Editors: and

This book represents the first full-length critical and interdisciplinary assessment of Loïc Wacquant’s work in English. Wacquant’s challenging critique of the neo-liberal government of crime and the punitive culture to which this is related has shaken criminology to its foundations. In a bold political analysis he describes how the US-led revolution in law and order has dismantled the welfare state, replacing it with a disciplinary and penal state. Wacquant’s analysis also details the spread of neo-liberal crime control measures and the underpinning ‘pornographic’ discourses of crime across the developed world, although critics have questioned the extent to which this model of criminal justice really is gaining the worldwide dominance alleged.

Written by criminologists and policy analysts, Criminalisation and advanced marginality offers a constructive but critical application of Wacquant’s ideas. The contributors welcome the opportunity presented by Wacquant’s work to re-engage with a radical politics of law and order, criminalisation and marginality, whilst raising issues of gender, resistance, conflict and history which, they argue, help to enrich and further develop Wacquant’s analyses.

The book concludes with a chapter from Professor Wacquant himself responding to the commentaries upon his work. It fills an important gap in the existing literature and will be exciting reading for academics and students of criminology, social policy and the social sciences more broadly.

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193 EIGHT The advance of criminalisation Social science research has not been very effective in providing alternative understandings of youth crime. Neo-positivism, along with administrative criminology, through criminal career research, has dominated the theorising and old explanations of youth crime. Its influence on policy has been enormous, shifting the focus away from exploring how and why the young might engage in crime or how the state might be criminalising the young. Alan France (2007) Understanding youth in late modernity, pp 113–14 Introduction

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cannabis cultivation. Trafficked persons who are exploited for the cultivation of cannabis in the UK are committing criminal offences under the Misuse of Drugs Act 1971. However, if we recognise people trafficked to grow cannabis as having been abused and exploited, and as victims of crime or human rights violations as a result of coercion and abuse, then punishing them should be seen as highly inappropriate. The criminalisation of trafficked persons is also counterproductive for efforts to prevent trafficking and prosecute traffickers. The criminalisation of

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Perspectives From Wales on a System in Crisis

Austerity continues to impact the criminal justice process in England and Wales: police numbers are down, the Crown Prosecution Service is in disarray, legal aid has been reduced, courts are closing and magistrates are leaving.

Research into the criminal process usually focuses on England, however this book offers a rare insight into South Wales. Drawing on first-hand accounts of lawyers, police, suspects, and the convicted and their families, it uncovers how these affected individuals navigate the challenges caused by austerity, what has changed and what can be done to improve the system.

This book is a reliable and evocative account of the reality of criminal justice in Wales.

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From the Corston Report to Transforming Rehabilitation

This insightful book focuses on developments since the publication in 2007 of the Corston Report into women and criminal justice. While some of its recommendations were accepted by government, actual policy has restricted the scale and scope of change.

The challenges of working with women in the current climate of change and uncertainty are also explored, seeking to translate lessons from good practice to policy development and recommending future directions resulting from the coalition government’s Transforming Rehabilitation plans. This timely analysis engages with wide-ranging considerations for policy makers, providers and practitioners of services and interventions for women who offend, and questions whether women should be treated differently in the criminal justice system.

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, values and norms. Criminalisation, ‘the attachment of the criminal label to the activities of the group which the authorities deem it necessary to control’ ( Hall et al, 1978 : 190), is a process. It operates along a continuum and involves multiple state and non-state actors. The process starts from establishing and determining what constitutes the status quo (stability of the existing order) and what is considered to be a ‘threat’ to the stability/status quo, whether an idea or an act, and the actors (individuals or groups) that pose a threat in their thoughts or

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What are the current and future challenges in criminal investigation carried out by the police in the UK? How has the role of the detective changed over time and is there a real journey towards professionalism?

Written by an author with extensive practical and training experience, this book provides a comprehensive overview and critical analysis of the development and practice of criminal investigation. It examines decision-making within criminal investigations, from volume crime through to major and serious crime investigations and links investigative influences on policing with the evidence-based agenda. The book:

• discusses the move from the art and craft of detective work to a new science-based professionalism;

• contextualises the current position of investigation within the context of government austerity measures and the College of Policing and Government agendas;

• critically examines models of investigation such as the Core Investigative Doctrine and the Murder Investigation Manual;

• explores the legal framework for modern critical investigations and the role of the IPCC.

Part of Key themes in policing, a textbook series of evidence-based policing books for use within Higher Education curriculums and in practice, this book is suitable for policing and criminal justice programmes at undergraduate and postgraduate level.

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Successive governments have promised to reform criminal justice in England and Wales and to make it more efficient and more effective in preventing and reducing crime. And yet there is still a feeling that not enough has been achieved and more has to be done - a feeling that the English riots in August 2011 painfully revived. Where Next for Criminal Justice? offers a principled framework for the development of policy, legislation and practice, and argues with examples for an approach to criminal justice which acknowledges the limitations on what governments and reforms of criminal justice can achieve on their own, and where the focus is on promoting procedural justice and legitimacy; fostering human decency and civility; and enabling prevention, restoration and desistance from crime.

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