Lessons from cities in a
We are the first generation that through its neglect could
destroy the relationship between humans and the planet,
and perhaps the last generation that can prevent dangerous
Nicholas Stern, Why Are We Waiting? The Logic, Urgency
and Promise of Tackling Climate Change
Box 1.1: Bilbao – a story
The ancient Basque city of Bilbao captures all the dense, compact, crowded
variety of Europe’s industrial cities. High blocks of flats, old in the centre, newer
around the edges, are packed with
This original book builds on the author’s research in Phoenix cities to present a vivid story of Europe’s post-industrial cities pre- and post- financial crisis. Using varied case studies the book explores how policy responses to the economic crisis have played out in different European cities, with their contrasting conditions, history and performance generating contrasting reactions. The book compares changes between Northern and Southern European countries, bigger and smaller cities, over the past ten years. Across the continent social cohesion, community investment and social enterprise have gained momentum as Europe’s crowded, resource-constrained cities face up to environmental and social limits faster than other less densely urban countries, such as the US. The author presents a compelling framework to show that Europe’s cities are creating a new industrial economy to combat environmental and social unravelling.
.1%2012 144,389 2012 403,453
Sheffield 2008 246,000 -3,200
2008 456,000 1,368
+0.3%2012 242,800 2012 457,368
Belfast 2010 199,000 -4,385
2008 294,000 No change
2012 194,615 2012 294,000
Note: Overall jobs increased in four of the seven cities.
Source: Eurostat, http://appsso.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/nui/show.do; OECD, http://stats.oecd.org/Index.
aspx?DataSetCode=CITIES#; NISRA, Quarterly Employment Survey.
European governments support city recovery. First, the large urban
populations of a small and crowdedcontinent like Europe cannot
local governments to act, out of a combination of
social concern, a continuing desire to eradicate slums, and a strong
commitment to avoid the danger of ghettos emerging in Europe. The
fear of ghetto formation in Europe had become a recurring theme
in the wake of the US Civil Rights movement and the aftermath of
decolonisation. There was also the stark reminder of the history of
Jewish ghettos in Europe.
Allowing historic areas close to city centres to become such running
sores was a potential threat to the social order that city governments in