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PART V Democracy

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Local Taxation and the Social Contract in America
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Carrie Manning’s illuminating book examines how policies to limit taxation at state and local levels in the U.S. have direct and lasting consequences for equity, accountability, and ultimately for democracy.

Tax structures embed, and reproduce, an implicit social contract between government and citizens, creating path-dependent outcomes that produce unintended consequences that are rarely traced back to state and local revenue models. This book combines historical American political development with the study of state formation. It provides a clear-eyed investigation into the past, present, and future of the social contract between America’s local governments and citizens.

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75 4 Democracy It is a truism of any discussion of democracy that our notion is heavily indebted to the ancient Greeks, and in particular to the Athenians. The word itself derives from demos and kratos, people and power, and is often translated as the rule of the people – or the rule of the poor, who formed the bulk of the people in ancient times. But this inheritance is more problematic than it seems. The term kratos itself can refer to might or strength, to acts of valour or violence, or to power or dominion. Who counts as the demos is equally fraught

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RESEARCH Democracy beyond hegemony Mark Purcell, mpurcell@uw.edu University of Washington, USA This article asks whether Laclau and Mouffe are the right theoretical partners for thinking about the project of democracy today. It concludes that they still have quite a lot to offer that project, but it also suggests we should be wary of embracing their thought too wholeheartedly, specifically because of their fondness for Gramsci and hegemony, and perhaps also, as a result, their willingness to engage the state and its institutions in the struggle for democracy

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democracy, a political idea that is now at the very core of my work. It is ironic, then, that as I began thinking about this chapter, I realised that I did not remember very well what their idea of democracy was. Their way of conceiving of democracy, what they call a ‘radical and plural democracy’ ( Laclau and Mouffe, 2000 : xv), is not in the front of my mind anymore. That is partly due to age and to my failing memory, but it is more because other writers have stepped forward to occupy my attention when I think about democracy – writers like Rancière, Hardt and Negri

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Introduction Western energy systems require rapid transformation in order to achieve goals for affordable, secure, low-carbon energy. Yet achieving transformative change is proving difficult for a wide range of reasons, including institutional, technological/technical and political barriers. One underpinning challenge is that people have become alienated from energy as an abstracted entity ( Hirsch and Jones, 2014 ). The notion of energy democracy ostensibly offers an opportunity to regain control and reconnect people with energy systems ( Van Veelen and Van

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0 SIX Neighbourhoods, democracy and citizenship Joanna Howard and David Sweeting The focus of this chapter is an exploration of the nature of democracy in neighbourhoods in England in the context of the government’s neighbourhoods agenda. The emphasis on neighbourhood governance in Labour’s third term promises to reconfigure local democracy and the neighbourhood level is presented as having the potential for widespread citizen participation and engagement. Nevertheless, aside from a vague and often repeated assertion that ‘neighbourhood arrangements must

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There has been a growing concern in most liberal democracies about a rising wave of attacks against the legitimacy of science and the scientific method, including not only efforts to discredit individual scientists but also a far-reaching campaign against institutions of higher education, researchers, public intellectuals and experts. The COVID-19 pandemic has brought to the forefront of the public debate the relationship between science and society. Paradoxically, when the world has been struggling against one of the worst healthcare emergencies in modern

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This book has sought to use concepts of state formation and the social contract to understand the relationship between taxes and democracy. It has traced the development of the US tax state in terms of theories of state formation. It has offered a conceptual framework for understanding a longitudinal process of democratic development in which tax models act as a brake on the expansion of the social contract. The objective was to offer a new perspective on tax policy as being deeply rooted in the history of state formation and consolidation. The tax bargain

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179 NINE Democracy and welfare Thomas Paine (1737–1809) Paine was the first major figure to argue for a fairly comprehensive system of social security benefits to prevent and alleviate poverty and has, as a result, been described by some as the ‘prophet of the modern welfare state’ (Canavan, 1963, p 658). To most people, however, Paine is known for his political ideas: as the staunchest supporter of democratic government against monarchical rule – he was ‘the prophet of democracy’ (Hearnshaw, 1931, p 140). His social security programme was tied to his

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