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101 SIX Poverty, the crisis and social policy responses in developing countries Armando Barrientos Introduction The onset of the post-2007 financial crisis in countries of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), particularly the United Kingdom (UK) and the United States (US), and its subsequent spread on a global scale has raised concerns regarding its impact on developing countries, and more specifically the likely impact of the crisis on poverty, vulnerability and other social indicators. These concerns come on top of earlier

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interpretation. Amidst the expansion of the practice of policy transfer, the academic literature originally focused primarily on the experiences of industrialised and developed countries. Many policy transfer scholars (cf. Jones and Kettl, 2004 ; Nedley, 2004 ; Marsh and Sharman, 2009 ; Benson and Jordan, 2011 ; Savi and Randma-Liiv, 2013 ) acknowledge the paucity of developing country case studies in the literature and argue that developing countries differ in their institutional structures and present different issues in policy transfer compared to developed countries

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269 Invisible impacts and lost opportunities: evidence of the global recession in developing countries Naomi Hossain, Rizki Fillaili and Grace Lubaale The global economic recession hit developing country economies less hard than initially expected but, despite positive macroeconomic indicators, there are few reasons to feel optimistic about the impacts on poverty and wellbeing. Based on original research, this article outlines three reasons to believe that the impacts are likely to have been severe for those in poverty. First, the global recession was

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245 TEN Assessing child well-being in developing countries: making policies work for children Shirley Gatenio Gabel and Sheila B. Kamerman Child development and child well-being are major concerns in many countries, both developed and developing, and are the subject of ongoing concern at the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) as well as the European Union (EU) and the Organisation of Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). These concerns have led to a search for policies affecting child and family well-being designed to reduce or alleviate

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Introduction For many policymakers in developing countries, improving the effectiveness of domestic revenue mobilisation (DRM) – the generation of government revenues from domestic activities – has become a key policy objective to guarantee the financing of the basic functions of their states and provide essential public and infrastructure services ( World Bank and IMF, 2015 ; IMF, 2018 ). Moreover, following the 2015 deadline for the attainment of the Millennium Development Goals, there has been a major shift in the importance assigned to DRM by the

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99 FIVE Resource geographies in urban spaces: insights from developing countries in the post-2015 era Cristina D’Alessandro Introduction The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) have made explicit and formal a growing trend and focus of the international community, academic scholarship and practitioners on the ground towards urban sustainability. ‘Urban sustainable development’ has been recognised as a complex issue with a variety of components, including: urban biodiversity and ecology; urban fresh water and food security; urban clean energy; urban

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33 3 Social policy in developing countries: a post-colonial critique and participatory inquiry Sweta Rajan-Rankin Introduction This chapter resonates with the main tenet of this edited collection book, seeking to examine first hand what social policy formulations may look like as told from the perspective of the Global South. Mainstream social policy discourses have focused on post-war welfare provision in rich industrialised countries (Baldock et al, 2011). Economic development was identified as a key driver for welfare state emergence in wealthy

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51 FOUR social inclusion of older people in developing countries: relations and resources Peter Lloyd-Sherlock, Armando Barrientos and Julia Mase introduction Development studies offers a specific set of perspectives on poverty, deprivation and welfare, which take particular account of conditions of generalised scarcity, limited access to salaried labour and weak formal sector institutions (Gough and Wood, 2004). While a great deal of the literature about development focuses on resources and resource deficits, the relational dimensions of development and

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225 EIGHT Economic performance and social progress in Sub-Saharan Africa: the effect of least developed countries and fragile states Manmohan Agarwal and Natasha Pirzada Introduction Economic growth in Sub-Saharan Africa has lagged behind that in other regions over the past five decades (1965-2011). This poor performance contrasts with earlier high hopes, as Sub-Saharan Africa was believed to have the potential for rapid growth (Enke, 1963; Kamarck, 1967). The World Bank has undertaken a number of studies (for example, 1981, 1989; Lele, 1991; Husain and

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55 THREE living conditions among people with disabilities in developing countries Arne H. Eide, Mitch E. Loeb, Sekai Nhiwatiwa, Alister Munthali, Thabale J. Ngulube and Gert van Rooy introduction Living conditions and poverty are two common quantifiers or parameters of socioeconomic status and both have evolved from rather narrow economic and material concepts to encompass broader and more complex understandings. According to Heiberg and Øvensen (1993), studies on living conditions have evolved to include individuals’ capabilities and how they utilise their

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