What exactly is discrimination? Its specific role in generating
disadvantage requires clarification: ‘it is essential to distinguish
discrimination from the larger phenomenon of disadvantage, as this
can be seen in patterns of gender and racial inequality. These patterns
are the products of a great variety of causes, of which discrimination is
but one’ (Banton, 1994, p 19). This general point does, of course, apply
to patterns of inequality pertaining to other groups as well. Moreover,
if patterns of
Key findings Racism and racial discrimination shape the lives of ethnic minority groups in the UK: there are persistent experiences of racial discrimination both before and during the pandemic, across a wide range of settings.
The Evidence for Equality National Survey (EVENS) enables an assessment of racism and racial discrimination experienced in the period before the start of the pandemic, and during its first year.
Almost one in six ethnic minority people reported having experienced a racist physical assault. Over half of respondents from the Gypsy
This book exposes how inequalities based on class and social background arise from employment practices in the digital age. It considers instances where social media is used in hiring to infiltrate private lives and hide job advertisements based on locality; where algorithms assess socio-economic data to filter candidates; where human interviewers are replaced by artificial intelligence with design that disadvantages users of classed language; and where already vulnerable groups become victims of digitalisation and remote work.
The author examines whether these practices create risks of discrimination based on certain protected attributes, including "social origin" in international labour law and laws in Australia and South Africa, "social condition" and "family status" in laws within Canada, and others. The book proposes essential law reform and improvements to workplace policy.
Indigenous peoples: dispossession,
colonisation and discrimination
This chapter reviews the experience of indigenous peoples, that
is, those who are also referred to as aboriginal or native peoples. It
identifies some of the major populations of indigenous peoples living
in rural areas within Westernised welfare structures, including: the
Aborigines and Torres Strait Islanders of Australia; the Maori of New
Zealand; the Inuit, Métis and the First Nations (Indians) of Canada
and the US. Currently, the proportions of these indigenous
Out of the picture? Sexual
orientation and labour market
Anne Bellis with Teresa Cairns and Susan McGrath
Introduction: the need for national and local visibility
Labour market discrimination linked to sexual orientation has received
little attention by researchers and not much is known about the
labour market experiences of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender
(LGBT) people. There is no question about sexual orientation in
the national Census and the collection of such information would
anyway be problematic because of fears about
This book has two aspects and aims. First, it aims to unravel the extent to which discrimination in employment based on class and factors reflective of social background is prohibited in Australia, South Africa, Canada and New Zealand, and key differences in the law of each of these jurisdictions. Second, it examines the application of the law to the use of new technology and practices, to expose how their use creates risks of this type of discrimination and to propose how these technologies and practices can be re-imagined to reduce these
stigma and shame
Shame is taken to be externally imposed by society, via
individuals and through social institutions, but internalized
and experienced as a powerful negative emotion that results
in social withdrawal and powerlessness. (Walker, 2014, p 2)
“They are making people feel like they are not up to scratch.
Stop putting out that propaganda about scroungers. Stop
trying to put fear into an already unsteady person. Stop
trying to drive people by fear. You are a valuable piece
of society.” (Amanda, aged
Age discrimination in history
Age discrimination is once again back on the British political agenda.
On 1 October 2006 there will come into force the new Age Regulations,
which will outlaw age discrimination in key aspects of employment
(principally recruitment, promotion and training) and extend full
employment rights (for example, regarding unfair dismissal) to those aged
65+. All statutory retirement ages under 65 are to be banned (unless
‘objectively justified’) and employees will have a right to request to remain
Impacts of perceived workplace discrimination on depressed mood change from early adulthood to mid-life.
Discrimination ‘within life stage’ is most consequential in the mid-30s, a time of career advancement.
Lingering ‘across stage’ effects of discrimination are more pronounced early in career.
Findings contribute to understanding the dynamic impacts of discrimination from a life course perspective.
It is well established that perceived discrimination jeopardises mental health. However, little is known about whether its