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53 3 Economic development Development and the economy The idea of ‘economic development’ is usually interpreted in terms of national economies, though it could also be seen as a characteristic of regions – geographical areas where there are distinct patterns of economic activity. At the simplest level, development is seen in terms of the establishment of a formal economy, and incremental growth in the value of what is produced – judged by the gross national product or (almost the same thing, in terms of the figures) the national income. Production, income

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123 five Community economic development (CED) Under capitalism community economic development can be understood primarily in terms of increasing the market value of goods and services produced in the community, but also as involving the production of use-value for the community – in other words, as production either for profit or for community benefit (and in practice sometimes both). Evidence suggests that communities that are more in need of development tend to be stuck in ‘low-pay/no-pay’ cycles, where new jobs being provided are predominantly low

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101 6 Urbanization and Economic Development Comparing the Trajectories of China and the United States Jan Nijman Introduction “The city” by Robert Park (1915) was a seminal piece of writing because it provided a new way of looking at society, at social structures and processes, and at human agency, in light of the transformational effects of the urban environment. It directed attention to the nature of human ecology (even if that term is not employed in “The city”), socio-spatial organization, individual identities, belonging, the definition and

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191 EIGHT Women’s role in economic development: overcoming the constraints Sarah Bradshaw with Joshua Castellino and Bineta Diop Introduction This chapter builds on the background paper on ‘women’s role in economic development’ produced for the High-Level Panel (HLP) on the post-2015 agenda, and also draws on the work of the Sustainable Development Solutions Network thematic group three (UNSDSN, 2013).1 It seeks to explain why women are important for bringing about economic development and what limits their engagement in income generating activities

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Policy and Politics vol 2S no I REGIONALISATION, REGIONAL INSTITUTIONS AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT Richard Evans and Alan Harding Recent claims that regional government structures are crucial to regional economic competitiveness are controversial. This article summarises the economic arguments for regional government and assesses how far British policy-making on economic development has become regionalised. It examines links between regional institutional capacity and regional economic performance in Britain, commenting in detail upon the experiences of four British

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61 Local and regional economic development in England FOUR Local and regional economic development in England Graham Haughton Introduction Background to local and regional economic development in England L&RED activity in England has grown enormously since the 1970s, emerging as a professionalised field of activity employing substantial numbers of people in a growing range of organisations. From its initial roots in central government regional policy in the immediate post-war years and the 1960s, the focus began to shift in the 1970s towards local activities as

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109 SIX Economic development as differentiated citizenship: Australia Yindyamarra winhanga-nha [The wisdom of knowing how to live well in a world worth living in] Introduction Indigenous economic practice and aspirations emphasise economic activity’s cultural context and purpose; practices and aspirations that routinely differ from Australian public policy’s instinctive presumptions. In focusing on the politics of indigenous economic development, as differentiated citizenship and as an essential constituent of Australian reconciliation, this chapter notes

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Every generation of people looks for ways in which they can prosper in the settlements and localities in which they live out their lives; and arguably every generation ends up rediscovering the tools of community economic development. This chapter looks at the field of community economic development, to understand how that process of rediscovery could be eased and conversely why it might repeatedly be obscured. There is no better introduction to community development than the story of Tony Gibson, who made his name on the Meadow Well Estate in Tyneside in the

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Tony Fu-Lai Yu* School of Economics and Management, University College, University of New South Wales - Australia The Role of Government in the Economic Development of the East Asian Learning Economies Abstract - By emphasizing uncertainty, this paper highlights two important roles of government in the economic development of the Asian Newly Industrializing Economies, namely, coordi- nation and entrepreneurship. Coordination can be achieved by adopting policies that reduce mar- ket uncertainty, facilitate investment decision, social learning and diffusion

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1 International comparisons of local and regional economic development ONE International comparisons of local and regional economic development Andrew Beer, Graham Haughton and Alaric Maude Introducing local and regional economic development Working to help create jobs and promote well-being at the local level – who could possibly object to that? Well many have, as critics from different perspectives have argued that the activities of local and regional economic development (L&RED) bodies are variously unnecessary, inadequate, ineffective, or even

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