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167 TEN Enforcement Introduction An important principle of the planning enforcement system in the UK is that it is not focused on punishing those who have fallen foul of planning legislation. Rather, enforcement seeks to achieve appropriate development in the right location, with appropriate control. Negotiation comes first. This is not to say that there is no penalty for those who do not comply with enforcement action taken against them. A system of criminal convictions and fines exist for those found guilty of offences under the relevant Acts. This

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137 SIX Regulatory inaction? Regulation without enforcement ‘Increasingly we’re told that our main job is to facilitate business, industry and so on.’ (Environmental Health Officer, interview, Merseyside) Introduction The focus of this chapter is on the trajectories of state enforcement of regulatory law in the context of three areas of social protection, spanning national and local regulatory bodies in the UK: food safety, namely the quality and hygiene standards associated with food bought for consumption in the home or otherwise; health and safety at

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Law enforcement misconduct and crime includes a wide range of behaviours committed by sworn law enforcement officers who are given the general powers of arrest at the time these offenses are committed. Anecdotes, journalistic accounts, government-sponsored commissions and scholarship demonstrate that police officers commit various forms of misconduct and crime including murder, assault, larceny/theft, drug trafficking, predatory sex offenses and driving whilst intoxicated. Other forms of law enforcement misconduct more specifically involve corruption, whereby

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divergence, this study suggests that the Chinese government has deployed a dichotomous regulatory enforcement strategy: for the domestic market, both a reactive form of information-gathering and a persuasive approach to behaviour-modification have been employed to establish consensus and the basis for cooperation; for food export markets, an active and highly deterrent manner is utilised to detect and punish violations rigorously. To explain the variations, this study argues that the active and deterrent approach adopted in the export sector is a result of the

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Policy and Politics, Vol. 10 No.3 (1982),263-288 POLICING POLLUTION: The Enforcement Process Genevra Richardson 263 When governments intervene to control the generation of 'pollution' by industrial enterprises they frequently do so by means of legislatively imposed standards backed by negative sanctions. Accordingto orthodox economic theory, in order most effectively to encourage a socially efficient level of pollution such standards should keep to a minimum the costs of abating the interference and the costs imposed by the interference on others, while the

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4.1 Introduction This chapter explores the role of detention as a method to enforce hostility and social control. It focuses on three methods of containment or routes to detention: criminalisation, pathologisation and deterrence. These methods are probed in relation to how they impact on typologies of marginalisation: (1) the “unseen” (those marginalised in neoliberal societies on account of their destitution and/or extreme social needs); (2) the “reviled and resented” (those subjected to racist, xenophobic, and/or discriminatory attacks); and (3) the

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Law Enforcement

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115 SEVEN Law enforcement behaviour of regulatory inspectors Vibeke Lehmann Nielsen Introduction Every year, almost every day, and in almost every country in the world, regulatory inspectors working in different policy areas get into their cars and go on inspection visits. Before the visits, they have spent some time at the office answering emails, returning phone calls and going through the case files of the businesses that they are going to. The businesses are often quite various; some are large, some small; some are public businesses, others are private

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international cartel. The central tenet of ordoliberal ideology was for the state to enforce competition. This was required to remove distortions from the price mechanism, thereby protecting individual economic freedom of action. Böhm did not believe in a utilitarian maximization of welfare but instead proposed that the dispersal of economic power should be the goal of antitrust policy based on performance competition. This enabled firms to reap the rewards of innovation through temporary monopolies, but placed significant constraints on firm behaviour from distorting the

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-related violence and crime in their neighborhoods. Insights are presented into the type of community-centered interventions in place within the county to prevent violence and to re-engage disadvantaged young men (including those involving law enforcement), as well as practitioners’ reflections on their nature and impact. The prominent role or apparent absence of police in these interventions is considered, drawing on the perspectives of practitioners, and supplementary insights from youth focus groups shed light on justice-involved young men’s continued distrust of law

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