65 THREE Equality The meaning of equality Social inequality is about disadvantage. People are unequal when one has an advantage over another. Advantage and disadvantage are social relationships. People are not said to be disadvantaged because they are worse off, or in a less desirable state than others,122 but because their social relationships make them worse off. For example, if one person has cancer and another does not, that is not inequality; it is a difference in need. The very extensive literature on ‘inequalities in health’ is not about the fact that
In an era of ongoing economic failures, as governments cut support to the poorest, the richest continue to get richer and those in-between are squeezed by rising costs and flagging incomes, the challenges for social cohesion – and for social justice – seem overwhelming. As inequality increases, it can become harder to empathise with life experiences far removed from our own, particularly when fuelled by a sense of injustice. Our samenesses and our differences can remain unseen, unvalued or misunderstood.
In this ambitious, wide-ranging book, the author sets out a vision for social justice as ‘inclusive equality’, where barriers to equality and inclusion are removed to the maximum extent possible while preserving and strengthening social cohesion. Weaving together themes from the theoretical literatures on social justice, poverty, discrimination and social exclusion, she explores relationships between equality, diversity and inclusion - a novel approach that reveals clear, practical implications for the design and delivery of social policy.
EPDF and EPUB available Open Access under CC-BY-NC licence. Drawing on comparative research from five countries, What Works in Improving Gender Equality provides an accessible analysis of what gender equality means and how we can achieve it by adapting best practices in care policies from other countries.
Realistic policy solutions are reached by examining the contexts in which childcare and longterm care policies are developed, and what difficulties might need to be overcome in applying the lessons from different international models.
Available Open Access under CC-BY-NC licence. Paul Spicker’s new book takes the three founding principles of the French Revolution - Liberty, Equality, Fraternity - and examines how they relate to social policy today. The book considers the political and moral dimensions of a wide range of social policies, and offers a different way of thinking about each subject from the way it is usually analysed.
The book is in three main parts, one part devoted to Liberty, Equality and Fraternity in turn. Each part explores the elements and dimensions of the key concept, its application to policy, its interrelationship with the other two principles, and how policies have developed to promote the principle in society. The conclusion outlines three models of radical politics, based on the main concepts.
Liberty, equality, fraternity is an original, thought-provoking book, addressing perennial themes with many topical examples drawn from policy in practice, and offering distinctive insights into socialist and radical thinking.
Available Open Access under CC-BY-NC licence. This important book explores the values of equality and diversity as promoted across liberal societies, drawing on various traditions of political and social philosophy, including liberal egalitarianism, existentialism, and elements of post-modernism and post-structuralism. These philosophies are applied to policy and practice debates, especially concerning disability issues, but also relating to gender and multiculturalism. It will be of interest to academics and postgraduate students across a range of social studies disciplines.
Introduction In this chapter, we will look in more detail at the Universal Model and Partnership Model of providing childcare. We will seek to answer three main questions: 1. What is it about these models of childcare that leads to better gender equality? a) How do the different elements work? b) What are the ideas, institutions and actors that make it work? c) What could make these models of childcare not work to improve gender equality? 2. What aspects of these models of childcare could be transferred to other national contexts? a) What
99 FOUR Towards equality In Chapter Two I considered some of the elements of a ‘free society’. It is more difficult to represent the elements of an ‘equal society’, because the range of understandings is much wider. Equality covers a range of different concerns and aspirations; it embraces several discrete approaches, such as equality of persons, equality of rights and equality of welfare; and different forms of equality are achievable through a wide range of different methods. Policies for equality Equality of treatment There are five main types of policy for
With gender equality so prominent in public debate, this timely book reviews the impacts of gender mainstreaming on political, social and cultural issues around Europe.
It explores the origins and evolution of mainstreaming, the theory’s contribution to gender equality legislation so far and its potential to drive change in the future. Drawing on extensive data, the book compares and contrasts progress in various European countries, taking into account the multidimensionality of gender equality. Finally, the book considers the limits of gender mainstreaming amid economic, migration and political challenges.
This important book is a welcome contribution to discussions about gender equality in European societies looking at the interplay of policies, culture and public opinion.
The relationship between gender and welfare states is of key importance in understanding welfare states and gender equality and inequality. Western welfare states of the post-war era were built on assumptions about gender difference: they treated men as breadwinners and women as carers. Now governments are committed in principle to gender equality. But how far have they come from male breadwinner assumptions to gender equality assumptions? How much do gender differences continue in UK social policy and social practice?
The book analyses the male breadwinner model in terms of power, employment, care, time and income, providing a framework for chapters which ask about policies and practices for gender equality in each of these. This new approach to analysis of gender equality in social welfare contextualises national policies and debates within comparative theoretical analysis and data, making the volume interesting to a wide audience.