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, respect and the public welfare and yet still claim to be maintaining a morally neutral stance. Policy analysis can be ‘outsourced’, but it cannot be treated as a moral void; the duties associated with public service pass as part of the engagement. The second set of principles relate to the ‘public’ nature of the activity – the public sphere. The guidance on ethical research from learned societies has so often concentrated on issues of privacy and the rights of participants in research that it has been liable to overlook, or even to lay aside, the public character of

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Introduction At the level of research policy there is a growing consensus on what counts as ‘ethical research’ across Europe, North America and in other countries that can be seen as influenced by ‘Western’ cultural perspectives. Standards set by these countries are regarded as requirements for all who wish to engage in research seen as ‘acceptable’ by their research institutions, funding organisations and publishers. Since international research projects are becoming more and more common and, besides Europe and North America, China, India and South Korea

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authenticity of the data. Whether fraudulent or not, the article has been withdrawn, and with it one of the largest studies supporting the effectiveness of ivermectin for COVID-19. What remains are several smaller studies of ivermectin, many of which did not find ivermectin effective for a number of outcomes. At the time of writing, the evidence from rigorous and ethical research does not support the use of ivermectin in the treatment of COVID-19. The WHO reached the same conclusion, but did recommend that ivermectin be studied further in RCTs ( WHO, 2021 ). Many such trials

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responding (via policy) to sexual violence provides a vivid opportunity to explore the interrelated nature of epistemology, power and ethics. Finally, I consider wider issues for the development of ethical research that seeks to inform policy. Ethical perspectives Banks (2006, p 4) describes two distinct and different usages of the term ‘ethics’. As a technical and philosophical discipline, ethics is more usually referred to as ‘moral philosophy’, and it incorporates meta-ethics, normative ethics and descriptive ethics. However, Banks (2006, p 5) also notes that

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communities historically that has led to black communities mistrusting researchers ( Davis et al, 2010 ; Scharff et al, 2010 ). These histories have parallels with critiques of the sustained damages of white settler scholarship on, but not with, Indigenous communities where, as Linda Tuhaiwi Smith famously noted that ‘“research” is probably one of the dirtiest words in the indigenous world’s vocabulary’ ( Smith, 2012 : 1). Moreover, more and more attention has been given to ethical research practices that go beyond simply getting ethical approval from research ethics

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duplication of ethical scrutiny is avoided and rationalise arrangements for approvals (Holmes, 2004; Medical Research Council, 2004). Conclusions and contemporary challenges for research Ethical research promotes respect for the health, well-being and rights of voluntary participants and, in its conduct, foreseeable risks should be removed and dignity maintained. Ethical principles of respect for autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence and justice provide a basis for decision making and ethical reviews of research. Contemporary challenges in research ethics encompass the

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This chapter discusses the ethics and the type of research conducted by an investigative journalist. It discusses the convergence and divergence of academics research and investigative journalism from the context of ethics and ethical research. Discussions in this chapter include: interviewing participants; people and stories; the politics of journalism; power and the editor; copy approval; moral responsibility and sensitivity; payment; and aftercare and professional boundaries.

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This chapter explores the benefits of using Q-methodology, a systematic qualitative method of enquiry, for research on and for social justice. It draws upon research undertaken in Northern Ireland, which captures probation officers’ perspectives on risk assessment and risk management in their practice.

Probation officers work with some of the most excluded, stigmatised and traumatised in society. The promotion of social justice- and human rights-focused practice is therefore fundamental to ethically sound social work practice. The Q-method process in this study provided a strong basis for transformative social research on ‘hard-to-reach’ issues. Several features of the Q-method process are highlighted as giving participants more of a sense of control over the research process. Q-method was found to be ideal in stimulating thought and discussion around macropolitical and structural issues, for example populist and punitive criminal justice policy versus human rights- and social justice-informed practice.

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This chapter examines strategies for addressing power imbalances, bias and disempowerment in the research process from the perspective of both care-experienced and non-care-experienced researchers. Also, this chapter reflects on practical advice for those engaging with care-experienced people in research and doing so can create more authentic, empowering and meaningful experiences for care-experienced participants in ways that reduce fear of shame, stigma, tokenism and re-traumatisation.

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framework; it also reports and assesses the research against its contribution to knowledge, its methodological standards and its pursuit of due ethical research process. Finally, the paper explores what is known regarding the utility of the research, its contribution to capacity building and its value for people, and closes with a discussion of the issues raised by the review. Reviewing practitioner research studies Practitioner research is on the move and may be on the rise; there is a growing international interest in having social workers carry out research

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