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Key findings Ethnic identity is important to people alongside a strong sense of belonging to British society but standardised measures of ethnicity do not fully capture the complex ways that people describe their ethnicity. The free-text ethnic identity responses demonstrate that the standardised ethnic categories do not allow people to accurately express complex ethnic origins and migration experiences; they exclude identities from certain parts of the world and subnational, place-based identities. Ethnic identity is important for most people from

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39 Ethnic residential segregation stability in England, 1991–2001 Katherine Farley, Health Sciences, University of York, UK katherine.farley@york.ac.uk Tim Blackman, The Open University, UK tim.blackman@open.ac.uk The residential arrangements of ethnic groups became the subject of political interest when they were identified as a feature of urban areas that experienced unrest in 2001. Residential segregation was framed as both problematic for community relations and a cause of economic inequalities (Cantle, 2001; Denham, 2001). This article presents

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115 FIVE Better understandings of ethnic variations: ethnicity, poverty and social exclusion Saffron Karlsen and Christina Pantazis Introduction A review of the evidence from 350 studies carried out in the UK between 1991 and 2006 revealed that minority ethnic groups are more likely to be living in poverty, regardless of the measure of poverty or deprivation used, with the highest rates among Bangladeshi, Pakistani and Black African groups (Platt, 2007). On most measures, the poverty experienced by Bangladeshi people was found to be more severe and longer

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State of the Nation

Available Open Access under CC-BY-NC licence. 50 years after the establishment of the Runnymede Trust and the Race Relations Act of 1968 which sought to end discrimination in public life, this accessible book provides commentary by some of the UK’s foremost scholars of race and ethnicity on data relating to a wide range of sectors of society, including employment, health, education, criminal justice, housing and representation in the arts and media.

It explores what progress has been made, identifies those areas where inequalities remain stubbornly resistant to change, and asks how our thinking around race and ethnicity has changed in an era of Islamophobia, Brexit and an increasingly diverse population.

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TWo Ethnicity and ethnic groups ethnicity is usually taken to represent a self-claimed identity linked to a perception of some combination of common history, origins or customs and possibly religion shared with those of the same ethnicity. There is an extensive literature discussing the meaning and use of the terminology of ethnicity and ethnic group, and both its distinctiveness from and overlap with the terminology of ‘race’ and of national identity. See, for example, Smith (1991), Ratcliffe (1994), Banton (1997, 1998), Cornell and Hartmann (1998) and

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Part Two: Ethnicities, exclusions, disruptions

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95 SIx employment trajectories and ethnic diversity Shirley Dex and Kelly Ward An important part of the content of children’s early years is their parents’ employment, which influences the time children spend with their parents and the level of income in the family. Hours of employment and the quality of working conditions will also influence the extent to which parents are satisfied, tired, exhausted or stressed when they come home. Over time we have seen changes to family economies in Western societies. Mothers have taken up paid work in greater numbers

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Summary The Casey Review cites a study by the think-tank Demos that shows the majority of ethnic minority students attend schools where ‘minority’ groups are in the majority. That statistic is correct but too easily misinterpreted. Only White British students typically are in a school where their own ethnic group forms a majority; for most ethnic minority pupils the largest group they will encounter at school is also the White British. The exceptions to this are the Bangladeshi and Pakistani groups, and more so in primary than in secondary schools

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107 Section 2 Ethnic inequalities

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125 SIx Anti-social behaviour and minority ethnic populations David Prior and Basia Spalek introduction Criminal justice issues in relation to ‘race’ and ethnicity have generated substantial research and policy interest. The experiences of minority ethnic groups as offenders/suspects have been examined and direct, indirect and institutional forms of racism have been explored, particularly in relation to police stop-and-search patterns, court processes (including sentencing) and custody. At the same time, substantial research has been generated in relation

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