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297 14 Global education policy Susan Robertson and Roger Dale Overview This chapter examines the expansion of global education policy-making over the past three decades, broadly driven and given shape by the globalising of neoliberalism, on the one hand, and greater engagement with the idea of education as a human right, on the other. Our argument is elaborated through the analysis of four education policy issue areas. The first focuses on the first attempt to globalise education policy via the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights. The second

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209 nine global education policies Roger Dale and Susan Robertson overview This chapter points out that existing ‘conceptual grammars’ of education, based on the primacy and centrality of national education systems, are inadequate in an era of globalisation. Globalisation has changed the structures, processes, scales and actors involved in education policy. These arguments are developed through the analysis of four educational trajectories: the first focuses on the fate of the first attempt to ‘globalise’ education policy, the United Nations (UN) Declaration

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. ( 1988 ). A culturalist theory of political change . American Political Science Review , 82 ( 3 ), 789 – 804 . https://doi.org/10.2307/1962491 Edwards Jr ., D. B. ( 2014 ). How to analyze the influence of international actors and ideas in the formation of education policy? Education Policy Analysis Archives , 22 ( 12 ), 1 – 34 . Edwards Jr ., D. B. ( 2018 ). The Trajectory of Global Education Policy: Community-based Management in El Salvador and the Global Reform Agenda . International and Development Education series. London : Palgrave MacMillan

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Global Forces and Local Responses

Rooted in an international political economy theoretical framework, this book provides unique insights into the global forces and local responses that are shaping education systems in Central America and the Latin Caribbean (CALC).

The book covers all Spanish-speaking countries of the CALC region and examines the effects of macro-economic pressures, geopolitical intervention, neo-colonial relationships, global pandemics, transnational gang networks, and the influence of international organizations. Chapters analyse the challenges and opportunities these global forces present to education systems in the region as well as highlighting the local efforts to address, mitigate, and counteract them. In doing so, the book illuminates how education can contribute to either maintaining or challenging inequalities and exclusion in the face of pressures from the global to local levels.

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Trajectory of Global Education Policy: Community-Based Management in El Salvador and the Global Reform Agenda . Palgrave Macmillan . Edwards Jr., D. B. , and Loucel , C. ( 2016 ). The EDUCO program, impact evaluations, and the political economy of global education reform . Education Policy Analysis Archives , 24 ( 49 ), 1 – 50 . Edwards Jr., D. B. , Victoria , J.A. , and Martin , P. ( 2015 ). The geometry of policy implementation: lessons from the political economy of three education reforms in El Salvador during 1990–2005 . International Journal of

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One characteristic of the relationship between education and development in Central America and the Latin Caribbean (CALC) is its dialectical nature. Although research on the region rarely speaks to this characteristic, it is clearly evident when looking across the cases presented in this volume. By dialectical nature, this chapter refers, first, to the reality that education helps to resolve or reduce tensions between the state and capitalism and, second, to the fact that the ways in which this tension is resolved repeatedly creates new opportunities for a range of international actors to insert themselves into education reform dynamics in the region. Involvement by these actors, together with counterparts from state agencies then proceeds – typically while ignoring or without input from teachers, students, and families – until a new crisis emerges, at which point the cycle repeats itself. The goal of this chapter is to make explicit that which is typically unacknowledged or insufficiently addressed in research on education in CALC – that is, the extent to which education is inextricably linked to and constrained by tensions and incentives produced as a result of the relationship between the state and the global capitalist economy.

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This book brings together researchers of – and research on – Central America and the Latin Caribbean (CALC) to explore the dynamics of global forces that challenge education systems in the region and to highlight the local efforts that seek to address, mitigate, and even counteract these forces. Examples of the global forces to which chapters in this volume are attentive include macro-economic pressures, geopolitical intervention, neocolonial relationships, global pandemics, international policy trends, the influence of international organizations, and transnational gang networks. While there exists literature on the global forces that have historically and generally affected CALC, and while some literature documents the challenges that face the education systems of this region, there are few publications that bring these two sets of issues into conversation. This is an important gap that warrants critical attention, for both sets of issues are intricately related.

This book addresses questions related to how education is contributing to maintaining and overcoming challenges and inequalities in the face of global and national pressures, and how national and local educational initiatives play out within the constraints imposed by their contexts. While the volume is oriented by an international political economy framework, each chapter presents recent empirical work that speaks directly to global-local dynamics.

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This book brings together researchers of – and research on – Central America and the Latin Caribbean (CALC) to explore the dynamics of global forces that challenge education systems in the region and to highlight the local efforts that seek to address, mitigate, and even counteract these forces. Examples of the global forces to which chapters in this volume are attentive include macro-economic pressures, geopolitical intervention, neocolonial relationships, global pandemics, international policy trends, the influence of international organizations, and transnational gang networks. While there exists literature on the global forces that have historically and generally affected CALC, and while some literature documents the challenges that face the education systems of this region, there are few publications that bring these two sets of issues into conversation. This is an important gap that warrants critical attention, for both sets of issues are intricately related.

This book addresses questions related to how education is contributing to maintaining and overcoming challenges and inequalities in the face of global and national pressures, and how national and local educational initiatives play out within the constraints imposed by their contexts. While the volume is oriented by an international political economy framework, each chapter presents recent empirical work that speaks directly to global-local dynamics.

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This book brings together researchers of – and research on – Central America and the Latin Caribbean (CALC) to explore the dynamics of global forces that challenge education systems in the region and to highlight the local efforts that seek to address, mitigate, and even counteract these forces. Examples of the global forces to which chapters in this volume are attentive include macro-economic pressures, geopolitical intervention, neocolonial relationships, global pandemics, international policy trends, the influence of international organizations, and transnational gang networks. While there exists literature on the global forces that have historically and generally affected CALC, and while some literature documents the challenges that face the education systems of this region, there are few publications that bring these two sets of issues into conversation. This is an important gap that warrants critical attention, for both sets of issues are intricately related.

This book addresses questions related to how education is contributing to maintaining and overcoming challenges and inequalities in the face of global and national pressures, and how national and local educational initiatives play out within the constraints imposed by their contexts. While the volume is oriented by an international political economy framework, each chapter presents recent empirical work that speaks directly to global-local dynamics.

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This book brings together researchers of – and research on – Central America and the Latin Caribbean (CALC) to explore the dynamics of global forces that challenge education systems in the region and to highlight the local efforts that seek to address, mitigate, and even counteract these forces. Examples of the global forces to which chapters in this volume are attentive include macro-economic pressures, geopolitical intervention, neocolonial relationships, global pandemics, international policy trends, the influence of international organizations, and transnational gang networks. While there exists literature on the global forces that have historically and generally affected CALC, and while some literature documents the challenges that face the education systems of this region, there are few publications that bring these two sets of issues into conversation. This is an important gap that warrants critical attention, for both sets of issues are intricately related.

This book addresses questions related to how education is contributing to maintaining and overcoming challenges and inequalities in the face of global and national pressures, and how national and local educational initiatives play out within the constraints imposed by their contexts. While the volume is oriented by an international political economy framework, each chapter presents recent empirical work that speaks directly to global-local dynamics.

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