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Challenging the Geographies of Centrality and Remoteness

This collection shifts the focus of higher education research away from the traditional urban centre and onto small island contexts across the world. Introducing the small island as a context for higher education delivery this book extends beyond the existing literature on higher education in small states, arguing for the value specifically of the small island as a conceptual frame for exploring multiscalar dynamics between global, national and local contexts in higher education provision. Drawing on examples from around the world, the book identifies how the small island opens critical questions relevant to higher education scholarship much more widely about the purposes and functions of higher education especially in relation to national, regional and local development, as well as questions about specific issues in higher education such as quality and management. The insights offered by the contributions in this book will be relevant to higher education scholars as well as scholars in the field of island studies, and especially those concerned with the relationship of higher education provision to regional and island development.

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PART I Scale, Smallness and Higher Education Development

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PART II Global Contexts for Island Higher Education

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Policy & Politics vol 31 no 4 447 © The Policy Press, 2003 • ISSN 0305 5736 Policy & Politics v 31 n 4 447–6 Key words: justice • higher education • under-representation of women • qualifications Final submission 15 October 2002 • Acceptance 5 November 2002 Justice in higher education Antonia Kupfer English Normative philosophical theories of justice can provide valuable solutions for problems of justice in higher education. In this article the author presents three categories of explanation for the under- representation of women students in sciences

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80 5 Higher education today Higher education in the UK in 2020 is, by any measure, a mass system. It enrols 2.5 million students, one of only five systems with more than two million students in Europe (the others are France, Germany, Italy and Poland). This still comes as a surprise because of the deep-rooted prejudice that continental European higher education systems are sprawling, disorganised and wasteful, while the UK is selective, structured and efficient. In England half of all school leavers continue on to some form of higher education, and in

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subsidies to HE has changed. Direct fiscal contributions (AFDs) allocated only to traditional universities (pre-1981) have shrunk, and while in 1990 they were more than 50 per cent of the budget, in 2016 they represented little more Table 3.1: Higher-education budgets – proportions (%) by type of subsidy (1990–2016)* 1990 2005 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 1. AFD 51.2 45.6 21.5 20.4 19.1 18.4 18.3 15.2 12.2 2. Free Education Bill – – – – – – – – 29.5 3. AFI 18.2 7.27 3.1 2

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PART III Higher education

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Introduction The provision of higher education in small islands is typically seen to address a number of regional developmental needs. Human capital approaches to regional development, for example, stress the importance of higher education and graduate skills in facilitating economic development in rural or remote regions ( Corcoran et al, 2010 ). Evidence of challenges to population sustainability in small islands due to youth out-migration for the pursuit of education or employment ( Cooke and Petersen, 2019 ; Alexander, 2020 ) also suggests that higher

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Introduction Decolonization is described as a ‘messy, dynamic, and contradictory process’ ( Sium et al, 2012 : II). Higher education Indigenous scholars from North America, Andreotti et al (2015) note that ‘the violences of colonization affect nearly every dimension of being … decolonization has multiple meanings, and the desires and investments that animate it are diverse, contested, and at times, at odds with one another’ ( 2015 : 22). Like Walter Mignolo ( 2000 ), the Global South postcolonial scholar, they share their pedagogical challenges ‘with the

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187 TEN Religious literacy in higher education Stephen H. Jones In recent years, a number of authors have highlighted the role that universities could potentially play in improving the public conversation about religion and belief (Gilliat-Ray, 2000, p 59; Prothero, 2008, p 173; Woodhead, 2009, p 28). Ford (2004, p 24), for example, has commented that the university is one of the: … few settings in our world where the huge range of issues arising out of [the religious diversity of society], relating to every sphere of life, can be thoughtfully and

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