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147 8 Health and education: moving towards healthy human development Introduction: health, education and human development Health is not only a vital asset for each individual, it is the very core of human development. (Gro Harlem Brundtland, 1998) Education is the most powerful weapon which you can use to change the world. (Nelson Mandela, 1990) Health is now widely seen as one of the vital keys to development, particularly in relation to human development, making a major contribution alongside income growth in addressing poverty and inequality. Human

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3 ONE Human development, capabilities and the ethics of policy Hans-Uwe Otto, Melanie Walker and Holger Ziegler How can we work to overcome unjust societies and achieve a better distribution of opportunities to flourish? How is human development best fostered? How can human development be revitalised in better- off countries where the role of social welfare is under scrutiny? These are some questions this volume aims to answer by analysing policies and conceptualising coherent and systematic strategies at the local, national and international level, and

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85 FIVE The contribution to human development of social policies in the Central American Integration System Guillermo Bornemann-Martínez, Pedro Caldentey and Emilio J. Morales-Fernández Introduction Central America is a region well known for its conflicts, poverty and exclusion. Most of the Central American population lives below the national poverty threshold, but the main problem of the region is inequality and exclusion. Although some Central American countries are the poorest in Latin American, their human development indicators reflect the Latin

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Evidence from Longitudinal Research
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It is critical that the wellbeing of society is systematically tracked by indicators that not only give an accurate picture of human life today but also provide a window into the future for all of us.

This book presents impactful findings from international longitudinal studies that respond to the United Nations’ Agenda 2030 commitment to “leave no-one behind”. Contributors explore a wide range and complexity of pressing global issues, with emphasis given to excluded and vulnerable populations and gender inequality.

Importantly, it sets out actionable strategies for policymakers and practitioners to help strengthen the global Sustainable Development Goals framework, accelerate their implementation and improve the construction of effective public policy.

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161 NINE Informal workers and human development in South Africa Ina Conradie In recent years, scholars and human rights agencies have been emphasising the importance of seeing civil and political rights and economic and social rights as closely related and in fact integrated (Carpenter, 2009; UN, 20111). In South Africa, it is clear that the achievement of political rights has not been sufficient to bring about either comprehensive human development or redress in terms of social and economic inequality. The anti-apartheid revolutionary and former South

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41 3 Precarious life, human development and the life course: critical intersections Stephen Katz Introduction In this chapter, I explore human development and the life course as precarious forms of life. The first part reviews the literature on precarity to draw out some of the critical and ethical issues related to ageing populations. The second part follows with an examination of how figures of the obese child, unstable adolescent, despairing mid-lifer and cognitively impaired older adult are examples of crisis- laden personifications of social problems

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155 SEVEN Child well-being in the US: proposal for the development of a ‘Tots Index’ using the human development conceptual framework Sarah Burd-Sharps, Patrick Guyer, Ted Lechterman and Kristen Lewis In my beginning is my end. (T.S. Eliot, Four quartets) Introduction US society and investments in both the public and private sectors show a concern for young children and their well-being, a concern that has resulted in some very hopeful advances. In health, infant death rates have been declining steadily since the 1940s (Kung et al, 2008), smoking during

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Enhancing Individual and Social Development

How can unjust societies be overcome with a better distribution of opportunities to flourish? How can human development be revitalised in countries where social welfare is being questioned? In short, how can human development be fostered in practice? These are some of the important questions asked in this volume through analysis of existing policies and conceptualisations of coherent and systematic strategies for human development policies at the local, national and international level.

International contributors innovatively combine the hitherto unpaired perspectives of the capability approach and the tradition of critical social policy with empirical examples using case studies from South-Africa, Asia, Australia, Europe and North and South America. The result is a call for a new, feasible approach towards more socially balanced, democratic and innovative capability-promoting policy activities, models and programmes that reduce social and human suffering to promote an enhanced social quality of current societies around the world.

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International development is a vibrant, interdisciplinary area of the social sciences. This Short Guide offers a uniquely succinct and balanced account of this politically charged subject. It distils both the classic and newer debates together in a clear framework and illustrates them with contemporary examples.

Designed to introduce a wide readership to international development, the book:

  • considers how far the field has been reconfigured over time and to what extent it is likely to change in the future;

  • reviews contemporary topics including tourism, migration and digital technologies;

  • includes distinctive international case studies and examples.

By providing a succinct evaluation of competing approaches to, and perspectives on, the idea and practice of international development, this book offers students across the social sciences a distinct and invaluable introduction to the field.

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A Dialogical Approach to Child Development, Policy and Practice

Human development is about the growth of agency, which is developed in interaction with their parents and families but if parental agency is insufficient, agency in the form of child welfare will be required to fill the gaps.

This book provides an holistic view of how children develop agency, combining social, psychological and child development aspects, as well as examining child welfare structures and the roles of social workers. This focus will make a contribution to current debates about child welfare and child protection and the book will therefore be essential reading for academics and researchers in social work, childhood studies, children’s policy and social policy.

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