91 Institutional rules FIVE Institutional rules In Chapter Two we outlined the reasons why we believe it necessary to analyse the institutional rules that frame the interaction of policy actors. In this chapter we discuss how analysts working in the social sciences have explored the influence of institutional rules on individual behaviour and on public policies. We then present the definitions of institutions proposed by the different neo-institutionalist schools, as well as the various hypotheses that have been formulated to explain these institutional changes
The publication of the Inquiry into the murder of Stephen Lawrence emphasised the institutionally racist nature of British society. Public bodies and welfare institutions are having to face the consequences of racism within their organisations. This task should draw on the earlier experience of the Central Council for Education and Training in Social Work’s (CCETSW) anti-racist agenda, whose initiative came under attack from government ministers, media commentators and sections of the social work profession.
This book describes and analyses the development of anti-racist social work education and training and moves on to a broader debate: it critically assesses the concept of ‘race’, the historical development and maintenance of racism in contemporary British society, exploring ‘race-related’ legislation and its theoretical underpinnings; it offers an historical exploration of the role of social work and its relationship with, and response to, the needs of deprived and marginalised communities; it provides an assessment of the backlash against CCETSW’s anti-racist developments from politicians, the media and sections of the social work profession, incorporating a debate regarding charges of political correctness.
Issues such as ‘political correctness’ and ‘identity politics’ are critically explored, and the implications of these political processes on the anti-racist policy agenda are assessed. The analysis reflects on both the possibilities and limitations placed on establishing anti-racist policies.
Tackling institutional racism will be of particular interest to Diploma in Social Work students, social work practitioners and academics, social policy undergraduates and postgraduates. It should also be read by professionals at different levels in the policy-making process, particularly those working directly with, acting on behalf of, or pursuing, the interests of the black community.
REVIEW ARTICLE Institutions in global governance Samuel M. Makinda* School of Management and Governance, Murdoch University, Perth, Australia In their book, Gridlock: why global cooperation is failing when we need it most, Hale, Held, and Young argue persuasively why post-World War II institutions delivered the global cooperation anticipated but ended up creating other serious problems for international society. They explain how the successes of earlier cooperation efforts produced greater multipolarity, institutional inertia, institutional fragmentation, and
149 EIGHT institutions and culture In order to explain the Easterlin paradox in terms of social value, it is necessary to show how the interactions promoted by the economic model increase welfare but not well-being. This implies that people in affluent countries act in ways that overlook opportunities to improve their quality of life. Given that the economic model itself provides cultural resources and institutions for producing a certain kind of social value, how is this possible? In the example given in the Introduction (pp 9-11) of the Israeli nursery
33 3 Reconsidering institutions The development of modern political science and public policy has tended to neglect the fact that politics and policymaking take place in the context of institutions. (Parsons, 1995: 223) Introduction Institutions have always been fundamental to the study of public policy, as constraining, enabling and structuring settings and influences upon policy actors and outcomes. Institutions endure, whether as the formal structures of politics and policymaking, or informal influences, routines and processes. Institutions, both formal
77 SIX Unemployment institutions Summary Labour market and social security policies changed radically between 1971 and 1999, in ways that were often explicitly designed to influence the size of the unemployed caseload. Small-scale training and work experience schemes introduced in the 1970s were massively expanded in the 1980s, to provide surrogate employment and reduce the claimant count. For a period, some unemployed claimants were financially encouraged to leave the labour market. Resources devoted to training were then reduced, while new measures to tighten
in which the design occurs will affect the success, or lack thereof, of the policy that results from that policymaking. A second premise, in addition to the perhaps obvious one that policymaking involves design, is that the institutions within which designing occurs will influence the type of designs which emerge, and also therefore affect the probabilities of success (leaving aside for the time being the meaning of success, but see Bohni et al, 2015 ) of the policy once designed. The various strands of reform in public administration, for example, may have had
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During the 20th century the locus of care shifted from large institutions into the community. However, this shift was not always accompanied by liberation from restrictive practices. In 2014 a UK Supreme Court ruling on the meaning of ‘deprivation of liberty’ resulted in large numbers of older and disabled people in care homes, supported living and family homes being re-categorized as ‘detained’.
Placing this ruling in its social, historical and global context, this book presents a socio-legal analysis of social care detention in the post-carceral era. Drawing from disability rights law and the meanings of ‘home’ and ‘institution’ it proposes solutions to the Cheshire West ruling’s paradoxical implications.
347© The Policy Press, 2012 • ISSN 0305 5736 Key words: Irish social security • ideology • interests • institutions Policy & Politics vol 40 no 3 • 347-65 (2012) • http://dx.doi.org/10.1332/030557312X626640 Interests, institutions and ideas: explaining Irish social security policy Mary Murphy The focus of this article is the interaction of institutions, interests and ideas as explanatory factors for change and continuity in welfare regimes. The case study of the politics of Irish social security (1986–2010) explores how and why the Irish social security
and girls have been killed or have disappeared in the last 30 years in Canada. In 2015, a decade after groups like Amnesty International raised alarm bells, the Canadian government finally agreed to launch a nationwide enquiry to shed light on this violence (the enquiry’s final report was released on 3 June 2019). The Ecstasy of Rita Joe is chiefly devoted to painting in raw detail the encounters between Rita and various Canadian institutions: schools, the welfare system, the police force and the judiciary. Some of the public servants portrayed are well