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Worldwide technological and societal changes in the past three decades or so has changed the nature of work dramatically. In such a changing world, job insecurity (JI), referring to perceptions about the threat to the continuity and stability of one’s present employment (Shoss, 2017 ), has become an increasingly prominent focus for both management practitioners and scholars. Numerous studies, including several meta-analyses, have shown its significant impact on employee well-being, attitudes, and performance (Lee, Huang, and Ashford, 2018 ). Recent JI

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job insecurity (Van Vuuren, 1990 ; Näswall and De Witte, 2003 ) have shown that in young people in particular, unemployment can have a negative impact on individual subjective well-being and mental health (Paul and Moser, 2009). In general, there is a growing diffusion of ‘insecure’ jobs among youth in Europe (Baranowska and Gebel, 2010 ). In national and local labour markets that are especially poor in opportunities for young people, this phenomenon has an important negative impact on subjective well-being (Kieselbach, 2000 ; De Witte et al, 2016 ; Giunchi

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Introduction Several studies have shown that young people in Europe are experiencing increased labour market exclusion and job insecurity (Baranowska and Gebel, 2010 ; Armano et al, 2017 ). Even if they find a job, they are exposed to the risk of precarious lives, because their entry-level positions are characterised by insecure contracts and/or low wages (Rokicka and Kłobuszewska, 2016 ). Young people experience an increasing number of transitions during their working careers because of intertwined economic and social trends. These transitions are not

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103 7 The impact of service cutbacks, job insecurity and globalisation Introduction Cuts to services across health, social care and education have embodied de-professionalisation in terms of reducing the number, type and range of professional staff employed: for example, fewer qualified teachers employed in free schools, more use made of teaching assistants; more health support workers as opposed to fully-trained nurses employed in both hospital and community settings (Siddique, 2015). The impact of service cuts has resulted in reduced professional

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’s self-representations and their perceptions of job insecurity in two different countries: Italy and Poland. Theoretical considerations In the sociology of youth, the transition perspective has provided the main framework for analysing autonomy (Galland, 1991 ; Bynner, 2005 ; Molgat, 2007 ; Manzoni, 2016 ). The youth period has been constructed as a stage of life between childhood and adulthood (Kelly, 2001 ). Whereas childhood is associated with physiological immaturity, emotional and economic dependence, and primary ties to parents and siblings

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transition to adulthood will take much longer. Evidence from recent research has shown that job insecurity delays decisions regarding transition to adult life such as leaving the parental home (Blossfeld et al, 2005 ; Nazio, 2008 ; Bertolini, 2011 ; Blossfeld et al, 2011 ; Jansen, 2011 ; Reyneri, 2011 ; Bertolini et al, 2018 ). However, these studies are quantitative, and they do not explain the preferences or the mechanisms behind this postponement. Is it that housing autonomy is no longer central to the process of becoming an adult? Do young people still believe

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The Multifaceted Consequences of Labour Market Insecurity

EPDF and EPUB available Open Access under CC-BY-NC-ND licence.

Policymakers throughout Europe are enacting policies to support youth labour market integration. However, many young people continue to face unemployment, job insecurity, and the subsequent consequences.

Adopting a mixed-method and multilevel perspective, this book provides a comprehensive investigation into the multifaceted consequences of social exclusion. Drawing on rich pan-European comparative and quantitative data, and interviews with young people from across Europe, this text gives a platform to the unheard voices of young people.

Contributors derive crucial new policy recommendations and offer fresh insights into areas including youth well-being, health, poverty, leaving the parental home, and qualifying for social security.

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Exploring Politics, Geographies and Inequalities

David Etherington provides bold and fresh perspectives on the link between welfare policy and employment relations as he assesses their fundamental impact on social inequalities.

Exploring how reforms, including Universal Credit, have reinforced employment and social insecurity, he assesses the role of NGOs, trade unions and policymakers in challenging this increasingly work-focused welfare agenda. Drawing on international and national case studies, the book reviews developments, including rising job insecurity, low pay and geographical inequalities, considered integral to neoliberal approaches to social spending.

Etherington sets out the possibilities and challenges of alternative approaches and progressive new paths for welfare, the labour market and social rights.

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Prospects and Dialogues

EPDF and EPUB available Open Access under CC-BY-NC-ND licence.

Individuals’ behaviours at work are known to be shaped by cold, or cognitive-motivational, processes as well as hot, or affect-motivational, processes. To date, employee proactivity research has mainly focused on the ‘cold’ side. But emotion has been proposed to ‘energize’ employees’ proactivity, especially in interdependent and uncertain work environments.

In this pioneering work, expert scholars offer new thinking on the process by examining how emotion can drive employees’ proactivity in the workplace and how, in turn, that proactivity can shape one’s emotional experiences.

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This Handbook is the definitive resource for anyone wishing to quickly look up and understand key concepts and measurements relating to socioeconomic position and inequalities.

A range of key concepts is defined and measures of socioeconomic position and inequality described. Alphabetical listings, cross-referencing, graphs and worked examples, references to web and other sources of further information, all contribute to making the Handbook both engaging and accessible for a wide audience.

For students, academics and others involved in social science research it answers questions such as:

'What's the official government measure of poverty?'

'What factors make up the Townsend Index of Deprivation?'

'What is a gini coefficient?'

'I have to write a report on tackling inequalities in my area - what are the key issues I should consider before I begin?' For practitioners, policy makers, journalists and others who must read, understand and use research in fields as diverse as health, criminology, education, the environment, transport and housing it provides a one-stop, authoritative guide to making sense of and evaluating the significance of often complex methodologies. The authors are all eminent researchers in the field of health inequalities. They have together produced two glossaries for the Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health and have published a large number of books and articles in learned academic journals.

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