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quality, occupational transitions and internal job mobility, that is, switching tasks in the same workplace, have been designated as factors promoting working at an older age. In a study of later-life occupational transitions ( Sonnega et al 2016 ), it was found that most career changes were made between closely related occupations. The researchers also found that occupation workers are most likely to move into jobs that tend to be seasonal or have low barriers to entry, and that employees in physically demanding jobs are less likely to have switched to a different type

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73 FOUR Work, non-work, jobs and job mobility1 Mark Taylor Introduction During their working lives individuals can experience key labour market transitions, and it is these that are the focus of this chapter. Data from the first seven waves of the British Household Panel Survey and the lifetime employment and job histories are used to study changes in economic activity such as the transition from school to work, unemployment experiences and retirement. Career progression is also investigated by analysing the length of time people remain in the same job, career

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European Experiences in a Neoliberal Era

More people are extending their working lives through necessity or choice in the context of increasingly precarious labour markets and neoliberalism. This book goes beyond the aggregated statistics to explore the lived experiences of older people attempting to make job transitions.

Drawing on the voices of older workers in a diverse range of European countries, leading scholars explore job redeployment and job mobility, temporary employment, unemployment, employment beyond pension age and transitions into retirement.

This book makes a major contribution and will be essential reading within a range of disciplines, including social gerontology, management, sociology and social policy.

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More people are extending their paid working lives either through necessity or by choice in the context of increasingly precarious labour markets. As a result, the importance of job transitions in older age has grown significantly. This book goes beyond aggregated statistics to explore the lived experiences of older people attempting to make job transitions in European countries. The opening two chapters in Part I explore the changing historical and policy context, and this discussion is supported by statistics on changing job transitions in 16 countries. It is argued that job transitions today must be understood in the context of neoliberal responsibilisation, which shifts responsibility onto the older person to ‘choose’ to take whatever job opportunities are available to them. Country chapters in Part II draw on qualitative research to examine how older people seek to navigate a range of transitions in this context, often under adverse conditions. These chapters cover job redeployment/mobility in the UK and Sweden, temporary employment in Belgium, unemployment in Italy, employment beyond pension age in Germany and the UK, and transitions to retirement in Ireland. The concluding chapter in Part III discusses the findings and contribution of the book in light of arguments about neoliberal responsibilisation, drawing together qualitative evidence from across the book as a whole. This book makes an important contribution to debates on employment and retirement in older age and is essential reading for scholars from social gerontology, management, sociology, social policy and public administration.

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More people are extending their paid working lives either through necessity or by choice in the context of increasingly precarious labour markets. As a result, the importance of job transitions in older age has grown significantly. This book goes beyond aggregated statistics to explore the lived experiences of older people attempting to make job transitions in European countries. The opening two chapters in Part I explore the changing historical and policy context, and this discussion is supported by statistics on changing job transitions in 16 countries. It is argued that job transitions today must be understood in the context of neoliberal responsibilisation, which shifts responsibility onto the older person to ‘choose’ to take whatever job opportunities are available to them. Country chapters in Part II draw on qualitative research to examine how older people seek to navigate a range of transitions in this context, often under adverse conditions. These chapters cover job redeployment/mobility in the UK and Sweden, temporary employment in Belgium, unemployment in Italy, employment beyond pension age in Germany and the UK, and transitions to retirement in Ireland. The concluding chapter in Part III discusses the findings and contribution of the book in light of arguments about neoliberal responsibilisation, drawing together qualitative evidence from across the book as a whole. This book makes an important contribution to debates on employment and retirement in older age and is essential reading for scholars from social gerontology, management, sociology, social policy and public administration.

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More people are extending their paid working lives either through necessity or by choice in the context of increasingly precarious labour markets. As a result, the importance of job transitions in older age has grown significantly. This book goes beyond aggregated statistics to explore the lived experiences of older people attempting to make job transitions in European countries. The opening two chapters in Part I explore the changing historical and policy context, and this discussion is supported by statistics on changing job transitions in 16 countries. It is argued that job transitions today must be understood in the context of neoliberal responsibilisation, which shifts responsibility onto the older person to ‘choose’ to take whatever job opportunities are available to them. Country chapters in Part II draw on qualitative research to examine how older people seek to navigate a range of transitions in this context, often under adverse conditions. These chapters cover job redeployment/mobility in the UK and Sweden, temporary employment in Belgium, unemployment in Italy, employment beyond pension age in Germany and the UK, and transitions to retirement in Ireland. The concluding chapter in Part III discusses the findings and contribution of the book in light of arguments about neoliberal responsibilisation, drawing together qualitative evidence from across the book as a whole. This book makes an important contribution to debates on employment and retirement in older age and is essential reading for scholars from social gerontology, management, sociology, social policy and public administration.

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case study analysis of UK local authorities ’, Economic and Industrial Democracy [online first], 1 – 23 . Krekula , C. ( 2019 ) ‘ Time, precarisation and age normality: on internal job mobility among men in manual work ’, Ageing and Society , 39 ( 10 ): 2290 – 307 . Lain , D. ( 2012 ) ‘ Working past 65 in the UK and the USA: segregation into “Lopaq” occupations? ’, Work, Employment and Society , 26 ( 1 ): 78 – 94 . Lain , D. ( 2016 ) Reconstructing Retirement: Work and Welfare in the UK and USA , Bristol : Policy Press . Lemke , T. ( 2001

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than the older worker. This is further examined in Chapter 4 , which explores why job mobility among manual workers in an organization in Sweden is not made available to older workers, despite the physical demands of the jobs. Temporary employment Moving into temporary employment is another way in which older people seek to extend their working lives, perhaps if other permanent work opportunities are unavailable. In Chapter 5 we explore the experiences of individuals doing temporary work in Belgium. As Table 1.4 shows, temporary employment among those

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restricted opportunities for job mobility and career progression. In sum, it is believed that Deaf and hard of hearing people face multiple and cumulative disadvantages in accessing worthwhile jobs and pursuing careers. This chapter reviews the research evidence in support of these beliefs about social exclusion from and within the labour market2. Research taking deafness and employment as the sole or main focus is extremely rare in the UK, however, and some supporting evidence is drawn from research in the US. Labour market participation Deaf and hard of hearing people

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overtime payments, we also know that being undocumented does not mean a total absence of agency and that some undocumented migrants are able to make incremental improvements to their working lives by adopting particular tactics in terms of skills acquisition, job mobility and even geographical mobility (Bloch and McKay, 2013). This chapter will draw on the narratives of undocumented migrants with the objective Undocumented migrants living and working in London 78 Living on the margins of exploring generalities and individual experiences in order to reflect both

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