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’ of government budget cuts, or ‘austerity’, since the early 2010s. In this chapter we explore the redeployment of UK older workers in one organization affected by austerity, a UK local government (LG) authority. It first situates the topic of job redeployment in the context of local government ‘austerity’ since the early 2010s. It then presents evidence from a qualitative case study of older workers experiencing job redeployment and job reconfiguration. The main argument is that under conditions of neoliberalism, job redeployment is likely to be focused on meeting

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European Experiences in a Neoliberal Era

More people are extending their working lives through necessity or choice in the context of increasingly precarious labour markets and neoliberalism. This book goes beyond the aggregated statistics to explore the lived experiences of older people attempting to make job transitions.

Drawing on the voices of older workers in a diverse range of European countries, leading scholars explore job redeployment and job mobility, temporary employment, unemployment, employment beyond pension age and transitions into retirement.

This book makes a major contribution and will be essential reading within a range of disciplines, including social gerontology, management, sociology and social policy.

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More people are extending their paid working lives either through necessity or by choice in the context of increasingly precarious labour markets. As a result, the importance of job transitions in older age has grown significantly. This book goes beyond aggregated statistics to explore the lived experiences of older people attempting to make job transitions in European countries. The opening two chapters in Part I explore the changing historical and policy context, and this discussion is supported by statistics on changing job transitions in 16 countries. It is argued that job transitions today must be understood in the context of neoliberal responsibilisation, which shifts responsibility onto the older person to ‘choose’ to take whatever job opportunities are available to them. Country chapters in Part II draw on qualitative research to examine how older people seek to navigate a range of transitions in this context, often under adverse conditions. These chapters cover job redeployment/mobility in the UK and Sweden, temporary employment in Belgium, unemployment in Italy, employment beyond pension age in Germany and the UK, and transitions to retirement in Ireland. The concluding chapter in Part III discusses the findings and contribution of the book in light of arguments about neoliberal responsibilisation, drawing together qualitative evidence from across the book as a whole. This book makes an important contribution to debates on employment and retirement in older age and is essential reading for scholars from social gerontology, management, sociology, social policy and public administration.

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More people are extending their paid working lives either through necessity or by choice in the context of increasingly precarious labour markets. As a result, the importance of job transitions in older age has grown significantly. This book goes beyond aggregated statistics to explore the lived experiences of older people attempting to make job transitions in European countries. The opening two chapters in Part I explore the changing historical and policy context, and this discussion is supported by statistics on changing job transitions in 16 countries. It is argued that job transitions today must be understood in the context of neoliberal responsibilisation, which shifts responsibility onto the older person to ‘choose’ to take whatever job opportunities are available to them. Country chapters in Part II draw on qualitative research to examine how older people seek to navigate a range of transitions in this context, often under adverse conditions. These chapters cover job redeployment/mobility in the UK and Sweden, temporary employment in Belgium, unemployment in Italy, employment beyond pension age in Germany and the UK, and transitions to retirement in Ireland. The concluding chapter in Part III discusses the findings and contribution of the book in light of arguments about neoliberal responsibilisation, drawing together qualitative evidence from across the book as a whole. This book makes an important contribution to debates on employment and retirement in older age and is essential reading for scholars from social gerontology, management, sociology, social policy and public administration.

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More people are extending their paid working lives either through necessity or by choice in the context of increasingly precarious labour markets. As a result, the importance of job transitions in older age has grown significantly. This book goes beyond aggregated statistics to explore the lived experiences of older people attempting to make job transitions in European countries. The opening two chapters in Part I explore the changing historical and policy context, and this discussion is supported by statistics on changing job transitions in 16 countries. It is argued that job transitions today must be understood in the context of neoliberal responsibilisation, which shifts responsibility onto the older person to ‘choose’ to take whatever job opportunities are available to them. Country chapters in Part II draw on qualitative research to examine how older people seek to navigate a range of transitions in this context, often under adverse conditions. These chapters cover job redeployment/mobility in the UK and Sweden, temporary employment in Belgium, unemployment in Italy, employment beyond pension age in Germany and the UK, and transitions to retirement in Ireland. The concluding chapter in Part III discusses the findings and contribution of the book in light of arguments about neoliberal responsibilisation, drawing together qualitative evidence from across the book as a whole. This book makes an important contribution to debates on employment and retirement in older age and is essential reading for scholars from social gerontology, management, sociology, social policy and public administration.

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% Country average 17.2 11.2 71.6 18.0 13.9 68.2 Country average excluding Australia, Norway and Netherlands 17.2 11.2 71.6 17.6 13.1 69.3 Note: ‘..’ indicates that data is unavailable or incomplete. Source: data extracted from www.oecd.org/employment/database Job redeployment Given the importance of job retention to working longer, in Chapter 3 we examine the use of redeployment to a new job and its impact on older workers in a UK local authority seeking to avoid compulsory redundancies in the context of

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responsibility for welfare that was previously collectively assured. In response to these changes, the bulk of previous research has focused on the factors that encourage or inhibit extended working lives; experiences of later life working are rarely explored. In this book we have sought to increase our understanding of these experiences by exploring different types of job transitions experienced by older workers in a range of European countries. This included job redeployment/mobility within the organization; temporary employment; attempted transitions from unemployment

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sector employees earning over €65,000, a reduction in overtime pay and an increase in the allowable distance of job redeployment (from 45km to 100km). This evolved into the Haddington Road Agreement, which maintained the central pay cut provisions of Croke Park II, backed by amended financial emergency legislation (FEMPI) that would impose harsher measures on those unions which rejected the deal, including unilateral pay cuts. Almost all public sector unions accepted the deal as recommended by most of the leadership, with the notable exception of the Association of

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 per cent), a reduction of overtime pay, and an increase in the allowable distance of job redeployment (from 45 to 100 km). Although the leadership in the largest public sectors unions (the Services Industrial Professional and Technical Union and IMPACT (Irish Municipal, Public and Civil Trade Union) recommended that their membership accept the so-called Croke Park II agreement, and others like the Irish National Teachers’ Organisation made no recommendation, it was roundly rejected by a majority of public service union members in April 2013, despite the

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Austerity is not always one-size-fits-all; it can be a flexible, class-based strategy taking several forms depending on the political-economic forces and institutional characteristics present.

This important book identifies continuity and variety in crisis-driven austerity restructuring across Canada, Denmark, Ireland and Spain. In their analysis, the authors focus on several components of austerity, including fiscal and monetary policy, budget narratives, public sector reform, labor market flexibilization, and resistance. In so doing, they uncover how austerity can be categorized into different dynamic types, and expose the economic, social, and political implications of the varieties of austerity.

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