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PART I Introducing Older Worker Job Transitions in a Neoliberal Era

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concluded that such moves were less common in the EU countries covered than in the United States. However, the analysis is not presented at a country level, and it only covers the period up to 2008, prior to some of the country-level policy changes to extend working lives. Furthermore, given the nature of the research design, it does not capture the experiences of individuals making such transitions. More fundamentally, as we argue in the final chapter in more depth, the concept of bridge jobs is not very helpful for understanding job transitions in older age. By

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responsibility for welfare that was previously collectively assured. In response to these changes, the bulk of previous research has focused on the factors that encourage or inhibit extended working lives; experiences of later life working are rarely explored. In this book we have sought to increase our understanding of these experiences by exploring different types of job transitions experienced by older workers in a range of European countries. This included job redeployment/mobility within the organization; temporary employment; attempted transitions from unemployment

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European Experiences in a Neoliberal Era

More people are extending their working lives through necessity or choice in the context of increasingly precarious labour markets and neoliberalism. This book goes beyond the aggregated statistics to explore the lived experiences of older people attempting to make job transitions.

Drawing on the voices of older workers in a diverse range of European countries, leading scholars explore job redeployment and job mobility, temporary employment, unemployment, employment beyond pension age and transitions into retirement.

This book makes a major contribution and will be essential reading within a range of disciplines, including social gerontology, management, sociology and social policy.

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More people are extending their paid working lives either through necessity or by choice in the context of increasingly precarious labour markets. As a result, the importance of job transitions in older age has grown significantly. This book goes beyond aggregated statistics to explore the lived experiences of older people attempting to make job transitions in European countries. The opening two chapters in Part I explore the changing historical and policy context, and this discussion is supported by statistics on changing job transitions in 16 countries. It is argued that job transitions today must be understood in the context of neoliberal responsibilisation, which shifts responsibility onto the older person to ‘choose’ to take whatever job opportunities are available to them. Country chapters in Part II draw on qualitative research to examine how older people seek to navigate a range of transitions in this context, often under adverse conditions. These chapters cover job redeployment/mobility in the UK and Sweden, temporary employment in Belgium, unemployment in Italy, employment beyond pension age in Germany and the UK, and transitions to retirement in Ireland. The concluding chapter in Part III discusses the findings and contribution of the book in light of arguments about neoliberal responsibilisation, drawing together qualitative evidence from across the book as a whole. This book makes an important contribution to debates on employment and retirement in older age and is essential reading for scholars from social gerontology, management, sociology, social policy and public administration.

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More people are extending their paid working lives either through necessity or by choice in the context of increasingly precarious labour markets. As a result, the importance of job transitions in older age has grown significantly. This book goes beyond aggregated statistics to explore the lived experiences of older people attempting to make job transitions in European countries. The opening two chapters in Part I explore the changing historical and policy context, and this discussion is supported by statistics on changing job transitions in 16 countries. It is argued that job transitions today must be understood in the context of neoliberal responsibilisation, which shifts responsibility onto the older person to ‘choose’ to take whatever job opportunities are available to them. Country chapters in Part II draw on qualitative research to examine how older people seek to navigate a range of transitions in this context, often under adverse conditions. These chapters cover job redeployment/mobility in the UK and Sweden, temporary employment in Belgium, unemployment in Italy, employment beyond pension age in Germany and the UK, and transitions to retirement in Ireland. The concluding chapter in Part III discusses the findings and contribution of the book in light of arguments about neoliberal responsibilisation, drawing together qualitative evidence from across the book as a whole. This book makes an important contribution to debates on employment and retirement in older age and is essential reading for scholars from social gerontology, management, sociology, social policy and public administration.

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are also compatible with essentially uninterrupted careers if the transitions from one job to the next – the so-called job-to-job transitions – are sufficiently frequent and the periods of non-employment sufficiently short. Hence, working with fixed-term contracts does not necessarily mean having more discontinuous careers. Verifying if this is actually the case is an empirical issue, which is precisely what we will do in this chapter. We will prove that although open-ended contracts are far from being ‘permanent’, fixed-term contracts are even shorter. This

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employment : sustainable employability/inclusive employment in the labour market; overcoming obstacles to employment; reintegration of sick employees, people with disabilities or long-term unemployed. Figure 11.1: Transition-inclusive HRM-labour market model In the remainder of this chapter, we examine in particular transitions from job to job (Transition 2 in Figure 11.1 ) and future transitions (Transition 1 in Figure 11.1 ), and we link the transition-inclusive HRM-labour market model to various policies aiming to prevent or reduce unemployment, providing

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incentives are used to activate recipients. In the UK, which has a centralized system of social assistance, the level of payments to private providers engaged in welfare to work for the central agency hinges upon successful job transition in individual cases (‘payment by results’). In the decentralized systems of the Netherlands and Denmark the municipalities are incentivized to activate recipients of social assistance. For example, in the Netherlands, municipalities have gained full financial responsibility for the payment of social assistance benefits since the

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, dependency undermines the ability to exercise the right to freely choose one’s work. In her analysis, the dependency of social assistance recipients on welfare officers is due to: (1) the implementation of (harsh) sanctioning instruments; (2) the length of a work programme (limiting exit options); and (3) the ineffectiveness of a work programme in facilitating job transitions. A second correspondence concerns the instruments necessary to minimize opportunities for domination in either vertical relations between citizens and state actors or in horizontal relations between

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