Introduction Keser et al. (2020: 714) posit the question: ‘Is the labor supply of individuals influenced by their perception of how their income taxes will reflow to them or be wasted in administrative expenditures?’ They examine three separate regimes of tax revenue use: (1) Buchanan’s (1975) ‘Leviathan’, under which no revenue returns back to the taxpayer; (2) public expenditure, consisting exclusively of redistributive transfer payments; and (3) public goods provision, conferring neither direct nor immediate monetary benefits to the taxpayers. In
sufficient to compensate the carer(s) financially as well. To explore this, the study presented here includes not only the monetary transfers that may come (indirectly) from the LTCI, but also any monetary transfers that come from the care recipient’s resources. It is the total amount of compensation that can offer carers some (financial) relief, which could result in a reduction of labour supply. Previous studies have found that carers are more likely than non-carers to both be, or to become, non-employed (see, for example, Pavalko and Henderson, 2006 ; Lee and Tang
regulating and controlling spatial development and matching labour supply with labour demand in ways that were seen to ‘balance’ spatial, social, and technical divisions of labour. The chapter demonstrates how more interventionist British governments in the first decades after the Second World War saw the engineering of regional economies, through selected inter-regional labour migration and resettlement, as a core component of broader regional development agendas. The focus of policy was on the presence or absence of particular types of skilled private sector workers and
Over the last fifty years women’s employment has increased markedly throughout developed countries. Women of younger generations are much more likely than their mothers and grandmothers to enter the labour market and stay in it after they marry and have children. Are these changes due only to changes in women’s investments and preferences, or also to the opportunities and constraints within which women form their choices? Have women with higher and lower educational and occupational profiles combined family responsibilities with paid work differently? And have their divisions changed?
With an innovative approach, this book compares Italy and Great Britain, investigating transformations in women’s transitions in and out of paid work across four subsequent birth cohorts, from the time they leave full-time education up to their 40s. It provides a comprehensive discussion of demographic, economic and sociological theories and contains large amounts of information on changes over time in the two countries, both in women’s work histories and in the economic, institutional and cultural context in which they are embedded. By comparing across both space and time, the book makes it possible to see how different institutional and normative configurations shape women’s life courses, contributing to help or hinder the work-family reconciliation and to reduce or reinforce inequalities.
“Women in and out of paid work” will be valuable reading for students, academics, professionals, policy makers and anyone interested in women’s studies, work-family reconciliation, gender and class inequalities, social policy and sociology.
The viability, quality and sustainability of publicly supported early childhood education and care services is a lively issue in many countries, especially since the rights of the child imply equal access to provision for all young children. But equitable provision within childcare markets is highly problematic, as parents pay for what they can afford and parental income inequalities persist or widen.
This highly topical book presents recent, significant research from eight nations where childcare markets are the norm. It also includes research about ‘raw’ and ‘emerging’ childcare markets operating with a minimum of government intervention, mostly in low income countries or post transition economies. Childcare markets compares these childcare marketisation and regulatory processes across the political and economic systems in which they are embedded. Contributions from economists, childcare policy specialists and educationalists address the question of what constraints need to be in place if childcare markets are to deliver an equitable service.
Across the world governments in mature industrial and post-industrial economies are concerned about the ageing population. Dealing directly and exclusively with the issue of older workers, this book brings together up-to-the-minute research findings by many of the leading researchers and writers in the field.
The duration and quality of working lives and the timing and circustances of retirement are of growing concern, especially in those cases where employers’ demands and imperatives clash with employees’ wishes. The contributions in this volume focus upon various measures taken by the state and employers to foster the employment of older workers in Britain, mainland Europe, the US and Japan. The authors address key issues that will influence public policy, exploring what workers over 50 want, the impact of the ageing workforce on employer policies and the implications for governments in promoting and supporting extended working lives.
The book is aimed at academics, students, policy makers and other professionals (such as training managers, HR professionals and trade unionists) interested in contemporary issues within social policy, the sociology of ageing, and human resource and diversity management. It wil also be of interest to older workers themselves.
‘The family’ is a subject of enormous academic, political and popular interest. It is a central feature of most people’s lives, the framework within which other relationships, activities and events take place. This unique study provides important new insights into the dynamics of Britain’s social and economic life - in family structures and relationships; in employment and household incomes; in housing, health and political affiliations.
Most previous research has been limited to measuring an individual or family’s position only at the time of the interview. This book presents a clearer picture by following the important events in people’s lives, such as starting work, getting married, or falling into poverty. It reviews existing findings and presents new analyses of data from the British Household Panel Survey. The same 10,000 adults (in 5,000 households) have been interviewed every year between 1991 and 1997.
Seven years in the lives of British families is a collaboration between members of the University of Essex’s Institute for Social and Economic Research. Each of the authors is an expert in the field, but the work has been presented in an easy-to-read style to make these important research findings widely accessible. The book will be read by policy makers and all with an interest in the dynamics of modern society, as well as by academic sociologists, economists and demographers.
Much of the literature that addresses youth unemployment has been framed within an economic paradigm and much less attention has been focused on the role played by country-specific value orientations in structuring economic activity.
Drawing on extensive fieldwork research and the work of experts in Europe and the United States, this book provides a culturally nuanced analysis of key issues relating to youth unemployment.
Examining the causes and consequences of youth unemployment, it explores ways forward to promote economic self-sufficiency. This pioneering work offers invaluable tailored policy solutions to tackle one of today’s most important socioeconomic issues.
Why is it so difficult to turn girls’ success at school into success in the labour market? How does detailed evidence about women’s engagement with local labour markets affect the ‘preference theory’ debate? Why is part-time employment such a popular but economically damaging choice for women? What barriers still limit women’s horizons and narrow their aspirations?
Using a new and original approach, this illuminating book explores women’s employment at the start of the 21st century, in particular identifying aspects of women’s labour market situation which remain poorly understood and challenging much ‘received wisdom’ about women and work. The contributors examine pervasive myths about women in employment which have influenced policy and explore a number of theoretical puzzles and problems which persist despite attempts to tackle them.
“Policy for a change” will be essential reading for professionals, employers and trade unions working in human resources, regeneration, equalities and diversity, anti-poverty, skills and training, as well as for researchers, teachers and students in sociology, social and public policy, labour market economics, urban studies and management.
The political and economic landscape of UK social security provision has changed significantly since the 2008 financial crisis. This fully revised, restructured and updated 3rd edition of a go-to text book covers all the key policy changes and their implications since the elections of 2010 and 2015.
With contributions from leading academics in the field this book critically examines the design, entitlement, delivery and impact of current welfare provision. The first half of the book examines social security across the lifecycle from Child Benefit to retirement pensions. The second half focuses on key issues in policy and practice including new topics such as the realities of life on benefits in an era of austerity, and the pros and cons of Universal Basic Income.
• Framework supports teachers and students, encouraging analytical thinking of issues and providing pointers to related sources
• Authoritative and evidence-based arguments
• Clear section and chapter summaries, overviews, questions for discussion, website resources and a bibliography
• Includes tables, charts and text boxes for clarity, interest and appeal
This book is suitable for undergraduate and postgraduate students of Social Policy taking modules on Social Security Policy, Poverty and Inequality, Income Support and Welfare Reform, as well as Social Work students and those on other Social Science degree programmes.