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273 THIRTEEN Learning support Renze Portengen and Ben Hövels, ITS The provision of learning support, targeted at marginalised groups or individual students at risk, can be seen as a form of positive discrimination. Learning support aims to enhance literacy in order to improve a child’s chances of selection for specific types of secondary or tertiary education, or to improve attainment in external examinations. We can assume that the most common form of learning support is that provided by teachers in their day-to-day practices. An example of their learning

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147 six Community learning Community learning is about forms of learning that are shared both within and across communities, as contrasted with learning that is locked up within institutions such as schools and universities. The school system in capitalist society is a specific type of field with specific types of player (teachers, students, governors, parents, etc). Like other fields within capitalism schools are sites of both oppression and resistance, reproducing and yet also potentially challenging economic and social inequality and injustice. In recent

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77 FIVE Public learning The story of Gladwell in Chapter Three illustrated that organisational learning: … is not the same thing as individual learning, even when the individuals who learn are members of the organisation. There are too many cases in which organisations know less than their members. There are even cases in which the organisation cannot seem to learn what every member knows. (Argyris and Schon, 1978, p 9) If this is true for the state of collective knowledge in organisations, it is even truer of systems. Separated by the boundaries of

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53 THREE Learning duties and learning rights Mia Douterlungne and Ides Nicaise (HIVA) Traditionally, the most important way of promoting equal opportunities in education has been (the extension of ) compulsory education: public authorities try to impose minimum participation on every individual as a way of ensuring the socialisation of young people and avoiding dependency in adulthood. While this tendency still persists today (there are obvious signs of ongoing pressure on jobless school leavers) the emphasis appears to be shifting in recent debates from

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113 EIGHT Learning beyond institutions Perhaps because school improvement research has traditionally been so weak (see Chapter 7), or because policy-makers have forgotten that a key component of the Education Act 1944 was for schools to minimise the impact of family background, there has been increased UK interest in education beyond formal institutions. In some respects, this could be a useful trend if followed to its logical conclusions (concerning informal learning, see below), but it can also be seen as a sign of defeat. According to some accounts

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Part Four Participation and learning

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77 Human investment and learning SIX Human investment and learning Introduction Human investment is central to the new knowledge-based economy. In Chapter 4, for example, we saw that human capital occupies a key role within recent neo-Schumpeterian growth theory; and that sociological models of organisational learning give a central place to ‘communities of practice’ which apply skills of practical creativity. Chapter 5, concerned with organisational change, identified the skills of those working at different levels within an organisation as the necessary

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First published as a special issue of Policy & Politics, this updated volume explores policy failures and the valuable opportunities for learning that they offer.

Policy successes and failures offer important lessons for public officials, but often they do not learn from these experiences. The studies in this volume investigate this broken link. The book defines policy learning and failure and organises the main studies in these fields along the key dimensions of processes, products and analytical levels. Drawing together a range of experts in the field, the volume sketches a research agenda linking policy scholars with policy practice.

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119 THREE Learning culture, learning age, learning society: turning aspirations into reality? Pat Davies and John Bynner The concepts of ‘learning society’ and ‘lifelong learning’ appear in a number of guises in the literature and in policy pronouncements (Coffield, 1999). Our project was concerned with policy and practice: the strategies to bring about a learning society in the wider national sense and to develop a learning culture at the level of organisations, groups and individuals. We focused on a particular feature – credit-based learning – and its role in

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317 Policy & Politics vol 37 no 3 • 317-34 (2009) • 10.1332/030557309X445636 © The Policy Press, 2009 • ISSN 0305 5736 Key words: policy transfer • learning • knowledge updating • policy making Final submission October 2008 • Acceptance October 2008 Learning by observing: surveying the international arena David P. Dolowitz To date, little of the transfer literatures have tried to discover if apparent similarities between systems emerge as a result of situation (simple) learning or topic (complex) learning. The issue that arises out of this is that while

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