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43 4 Methodologies, approaches and theories Chapter summary This chapter includes: • Overview of methodologies, methods and approaches • Explanation of positivist, realist, constructionist, interpretivist and transformative methodologies • Definitions of ontology and epistemology • Outline of action, evaluation, mixed methods, arts-based and digitally mediated research • The role of theory in research and evaluation • Links between theory, research and practice Introduction It’s easy to get confused about the difference between ‘methods’ and ‘methodologies

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87 ELEVEN Methodology: an introduction Elizabeth Campbell What counts for knowledge? Part Three of this book explores the ‘research methodology’ that has shaped both the research and the writing of this book. Before we dive into that, though, we’ll take a moment to define our terms. Lest the idea of research should sound intimidating, remember that we all do research every day. Shoppers compare prices, for example, students investigate courses, new parents watch others care for babies, teens try new games, and jobseekers weigh professional options. At its

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Key messages Epistemology is a core concern of intersectionality scholarship. How does epistemology shape the operationalization of intersectional projects? Researchers’ positionality, embodiment of privileges, and ethical responsibilities all shape intersectional methodology. Introduction Since its introduction in the academic field in the late 1980s 1 by the legal scholar Kimberlé W. Crenshaw ( 1989 ; 1991 ), the concept of ‘intersectionality’ has not only made a staple contribution to feminist scholarship, but also become a field of study

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109 8 Mobile Methodologies The focus in the previous chapters has been on the new ways to think about broad societal concepts and issues in the context of diversity and cross-cultural research. Namely, the focus was on multiculturalism and mobile inequalities as two equally important and relevant topics that need to be critically unpacked but also reimagined in terms of their relevance for diversity and culture research. In contrast to these more theoretical discussions, this chapter offers discussion in relation to ethics, epistemology, and methodology

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55 FOUR Methodological approaches In this chapter, I outline my methodological approach to the multi- site, comparative project at hand. Strictly with regards to the literature on surplus populations and the voluntary sector, it is my opinion that a comprehensively laid-out, on-the-ground approach has frequently yielded more nuanced, fine-grained and systematic understandings than approaches that are more high altitude and cursory. With reference to the debates over urban punitiveness in Chapter Three, those studies that took a more grounded approach (for

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Introduction This chapter returns to considering the ways in which environmental gerontologists address key issues. Although the earlier discussion of theoretical development in Chapter 2 did not detail a methodological approach, we are drawn here to the qualitative work of Gubrium, Rowles, Rubinstein and de Mederios, for example, who have developed ethnographic methods and phenomenological approaches that help us to understand the minute detail of everyday living in later life. Like other gerontologists in this field such as Oswald, Wahl, Chaudhury, Golant

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production by identifying and discussing: … the validity of knowledges and ways of knowing not recognized as such by the dominant epistemologies … either because they are not produced according to accepted or even intelligible methodologies or because they are produced by absent subjects deemed incapable of producing valid knowledge. (Santos, 2018 : 2) According to Santos, what distinguishes the epistemologies of the South from those of the North is that they are embodied, rather than intellectual, and value sensations, emotions, experience and memory. Empathic to

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Introduction Researching North Korean refugees raises numerous methodological questions due to their acute vulnerabilities and the extreme conditions they face. Fundamentally, it challenges the ontological and epistemological approaches of positivism. The contestation over what is considered to be ‘truthful’ and ‘valid’ data in association with North Korean defectors’ stories is an indication of such a condition. In light of these concerns, in this chapter I discuss methodological considerations in depth, focusing in particular on the challenges of studying

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of as ‘any work that children undertake that actually results in harm to the child and/or their household’ ( Sabates-Wheeler and Sumberg, 2020 , p 8). Forms of CHW are often hidden from sight and its prevalence, drivers and impacts are highly context specific (see Chapter 2 , this volume). Research on CHW therefore requires careful consideration of both methodological approach and individual methods. This chapter provides a review of methods that are commonly used for studying child labour and children’s engagement with work; considers their value for

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How do we get to know this ever-changing world, a world that we are ourselves part of? Our research is much dependent on methods that capture the dynamics of becoming and the ways in which we are implicated in them. One methodological premise of this book is thus that ‘knowing must be reconnected with being’ ( Ingold, 2011 : 75). This is what Karen Barad captures in the term onto-epistem-ology : ‘we know because “we” are of the world’ ( 2003 : 329, emphasis and quotation marks in original). Or as Maurice Merleau-Ponty would put it: we and the phenomena we

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