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43 4 Methodologies, approaches and theories Chapter summary This chapter includes: • Overview of methodologies, methods and approaches • Explanation of positivist, realist, constructionist, interpretivist and transformative methodologies • Definitions of ontology and epistemology • Outline of action, evaluation, mixed methods, arts-based and digitally mediated research • The role of theory in research and evaluation • Links between theory, research and practice Introduction It’s easy to get confused about the difference between ‘methods’ and ‘methodologies

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87 ELEVEN Methodology: an introduction Elizabeth Campbell What counts for knowledge? Part Three of this book explores the ‘research methodology’ that has shaped both the research and the writing of this book. Before we dive into that, though, we’ll take a moment to define our terms. Lest the idea of research should sound intimidating, remember that we all do research every day. Shoppers compare prices, for example, students investigate courses, new parents watch others care for babies, teens try new games, and jobseekers weigh professional options. At its

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Key messages Epistemology is a core concern of intersectionality scholarship. How does epistemology shape the operationalization of intersectional projects? Researchers’ positionality, embodiment of privileges, and ethical responsibilities all shape intersectional methodology. Introduction Since its introduction in the academic field in the late 1980s 1 by the legal scholar Kimberlé W. Crenshaw ( 1989 ; 1991 ), the concept of ‘intersectionality’ has not only made a staple contribution to feminist scholarship, but also become a field of study

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109 8 Mobile Methodologies The focus in the previous chapters has been on the new ways to think about broad societal concepts and issues in the context of diversity and cross-cultural research. Namely, the focus was on multiculturalism and mobile inequalities as two equally important and relevant topics that need to be critically unpacked but also reimagined in terms of their relevance for diversity and culture research. In contrast to these more theoretical discussions, this chapter offers discussion in relation to ethics, epistemology, and methodology

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55 FOUR Methodological approaches In this chapter, I outline my methodological approach to the multi- site, comparative project at hand. Strictly with regards to the literature on surplus populations and the voluntary sector, it is my opinion that a comprehensively laid-out, on-the-ground approach has frequently yielded more nuanced, fine-grained and systematic understandings than approaches that are more high altitude and cursory. With reference to the debates over urban punitiveness in Chapter Three, those studies that took a more grounded approach (for

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production by identifying and discussing: … the validity of knowledges and ways of knowing not recognized as such by the dominant epistemologies … either because they are not produced according to accepted or even intelligible methodologies or because they are produced by absent subjects deemed incapable of producing valid knowledge. (Santos, 2018 : 2) According to Santos, what distinguishes the epistemologies of the South from those of the North is that they are embodied, rather than intellectual, and value sensations, emotions, experience and memory. Empathic to

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Introduction This chapter returns to considering the ways in which environmental gerontologists address key issues. Although the earlier discussion of theoretical development in Chapter 2 did not detail a methodological approach, we are drawn here to the qualitative work of Gubrium, Rowles, Rubinstein and de Mederios, for example, who have developed ethnographic methods and phenomenological approaches that help us to understand the minute detail of everyday living in later life. Like other gerontologists in this field such as Oswald, Wahl, Chaudhury, Golant

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criminology ( Carvalho, 2022 ). In this way, the objectives of this article are first, to map the canonical works in the field, especially the publications and research of the 1970s, and second, to identify their theoretical and methodological perspectives so that current debates – inevitably a return to former ones – do not need to return to square one. With such an exploration, the study intends, in the context of the current discussion about critical criminology in both the Global South and Global North, to outline the first phase of Brazilian critical criminology in

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5Ann Oakley, David Gough, Sandy Oliver and James Thomas Evidence & Policy • vol 1 • no 1 • 2005 • 5-31 The politics of evidence and methodology: lessons from the EPPI-Centre Ann Oakley, David Gough, Sandy Oliver and James Thomas English The ‘evidence movement’ poses particular challenges to social science. This article describes and reflects on some of these challenges, using as a case study the development over the period from 1993 of the Evidence for Policy and Practice Information and Coordinating (EPPI-Centre) at the Institute of Education, University of

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part one Theoretical and methodological issues

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