welfare state or
financial services) but all industrial sectors have seen this other major
Rather than becoming fixated on economic activity, a more
sociological approach is to turn directly to occupations (we have already
seen how occupations, social classes and mobility mesh together). This
helps to solve the ‘who does what?’ classification problem within each
industry. Thus there are two sources of occupational change going
on. One is the balance between industrial sectors identified in the
Fisher-Clark account (even if the precise
Despite becoming a big issue in public debate, social mobility is one of the most misunderstood processes of our time. In this accessible and engaging text, Geoff Payne, one of Britain’s leading mobility analysts, presents up-to-date sociological research evidence to demonstrate how our politicians have not grasped the ways in which mobility works. The new social mobility argues for considering a wider range of dimensions of mobility and life chances, notably the workings of the labour market, to assess more accurately the causes and consequences of mobility as social and political processes. Bringing together a range of literature and research, it covers key themes of mobility analysis, and offers a critical and original approach to social mobility. This important book will challenge the well-established opinions of politicians, pressure groups, the press, academics and the public; it is also sufficiently comprehensive to be suitable for teaching and of interest to a broad academic audience.
More people are extending their working lives through necessity or choice in the context of increasingly precarious labour markets and neoliberalism. This book goes beyond the aggregated statistics to explore the lived experiences of older people attempting to make job transitions.
Drawing on the voices of older workers in a diverse range of European countries, leading scholars explore job redeployment and job mobility, temporary employment, unemployment, employment beyond pension age and transitions into retirement.
This book makes a major contribution and will be essential reading within a range of disciplines, including social gerontology, management, sociology and social policy.
EPDF and EPUB available Open Access under CC-BY-NC-ND licence.
Policymakers throughout Europe are enacting policies to support youth labour market integration. However, many young people continue to face unemployment, job insecurity, and the subsequent consequences.
Adopting a mixed-method and multilevel perspective, this book provides a comprehensive investigation into the multifaceted consequences of social exclusion. Drawing on rich pan-European comparative and quantitative data, and interviews with young people from across Europe, this text gives a platform to the unheard voices of young people.
Contributors derive crucial new policy recommendations and offer fresh insights into areas including youth well-being, health, poverty, leaving the parental home, and qualifying for social security.
inequalities of outcome in the mobility competition, which can
be attributed to social advantages or disadvantages (‘class’ differences)
or to individual ‘abilities’ (see chapter Ten). The second element is the
availability of employment, within which the mobility competition
takes place: how important are the labour market changes under
occupationaltransition? Third, the previous chapter identified gender
differences in employment patterns, which may reasonably be expected
to play into mobility outcomes. The analysis here is not intended to give
a definitive answer
the causes of mobility,
described some features of current mobility patterns and argued
that social mobility is better understood as a series of connected but
separable issues than a single monolithic process (the latter being evident
in, for example, the call for ‘more mobility’ or ‘better schooling’).
These arguments can be drawn together in two ways. On the one
hand, mobility can be thought of as the product of interacting general
forces and social processes. The groups that make up society are all
subject to occupationaltransition, gender and ethnic
active men and women, interviewed in London in 1980 and 1981. Occupationaltransition has affirmed rather than modified an existing pattern of inequality.
This is because some white-collar work in growing industries has become a typical
feature of working-class experience. It is also suggested that the association of de-
industrialisation and higher aggregate unemployment may have occurred under
conditions which make militant political opposition unlikely to develop.
W. Form and G. Putnam, Economic cleavages in the American working class
British Journal of
’ distribution of classes/occupations was dissimilar to those of
their children. This ‘asymmetry’ took the form of a higher proportion
of blue-collar and a lower proportion of white-collar classes/
occupations among the origins than in the destinations.There were
two main reasons for this asymmetry. First, occupational change – or
the ‘occupationaltransition’ of industrial society discussed in chapter
Eight – gives the younger generation starting new careers more access
to the new ‘better’ white-collar jobs than their parents, who started
work in a less white
quality, occupationaltransitions and internal job mobility, that is, switching tasks in the same workplace, have been designated as factors promoting working at an older age. In a study of later-life occupationaltransitions ( Sonnega et al 2016 ), it was found that most career changes were made between closely related occupations. The researchers also found that occupation workers are most likely to move into jobs that tend to be seasonal or have low barriers to entry, and that employees in physically demanding jobs are less likely to have switched to a different type
middle managers’, International Journal of Stress Management , 12(2): 117–41.
Bagnara , S. and Bargigli , L. ( 2009 ) ‘Job insecurity and successful re-employment: examples from Italy’, in T. Kieselbach, S. Bagnara, H. De Witte, L. Lemkow, and W. Schaufeli (eds) Coping with OccupationalTransitions: An Empirical Study with Employees Facing Job Loss in Five European Countries , Wiesbaden: VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften, pp 225–78.
Baranowska , A. and Gebel , M. ( 2010 ) ‘The determinants of youth temporary employment in the enlarged Europe: do labour