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17 TWO THEORETICAL UNDERSTANDINGS OF COERCION AS A PATHWAY INTO CRIME Introduction This chapter will begin by exploring women’s pathways into crime, before specifically considering coercion as a pathway into crime for female co-offenders. It will critically discuss concepts such as agency and ‘choice’ within the context of such relationships/co-offending partnerships. The chapter will conclude with a critical overview of criminology’s current engagement with and understanding of coerced women. Pathways into crime for women offenders Literature exploring

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319 NINE Pathways into crime after sexual abuse: the voices of male offenders1 “Nobody ever asked me what was wrong when I was in care or prison … nobody said, ‘why are you doing this?’ I was always in trouble – dishonesty, fire raising and property stuff. It’s all children in care, who’ve been abused, who end up in prison … it makes my heart bleed that there will be more children.” (Pete, ex-prisoner) “There was nine of us in the ‘List D’ school who suffered that [sexual abuse] and later nine of us later got life sentences, because we didn’t know

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A Gendered Pathway into Crime

What role does coercion play in women’s involvement in crime?

This is the first book to explore coercion as a pathway into crime for co-offending women. Using newspaper articles and case and court files, it analyses four cases of women co-accused of a crime with their partner who suggested that coercive techniques had influenced their involvement in the offending.

Based on a feminist perspective, it highlights the importance of gender role expectations and gendered discourses in how the trials were conducted, and the ways in which the media framed the trials (and the women).

Considering the legal and social construction of coercion, this fascinating book concludes by exploring the implications for public understanding of coercion and female offending more broadly.

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Experiences, Identities and Pathways into Crime

In recent years there has been significant negative attention towards young British male Muslims, who are perceived to be increasingly dangerous and criminal. However, very little is known about those who offend, as few studies have attempted to understand their lived experience.

After spending four years with a group of young British Pakistani Muslim men who were involved in a range of offending behaviours, Qasim gained unique first-hand insight into their multifaceted lives. In this book he unwraps their lives, taking into account their socio-economic situation, the make-up of their community, cultural and religious influences which impacted on them and their involvement in crime. He explores their identities and explains what role, if any, religion and Pakistani culture play in their criminal behaviour.

With a focus on the apparent link with gun crime and drug dealing, this important book exposes the complex nature of the young men’s pathways into crime.

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7776 COERCION AND WOMEN CO-OFFENDERS SIX COERCED WOMEN AND CRIMINOLOGY: LOOKING TO THE FUTURE This concluding chapter discusses the contribution to knowledge provided by this book and considers the ways in which a feminist, critical approach to understanding coercion, may lead to a more holistic criminological understanding of some co-offending women’s pathways into crime. It will particularly focus on the issues with dichotomising agency and coercion and viewing victims and offenders as a binary concept when considering the experiences of coerced

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Radical approaches to prevention, protection and support

In this outspoken and challenging book, Sarah Nelson argues that progress in addressing childhood sexual abuse has been in fearful or complacent retreat and that change is urgently needed in order to prevent abuse occurring, and to better support survivors.

From this starting point, she puts forward radical suggestions for new models of practice. These are designed to provide perpetrator-focussed child protection, to encourage community approaches to prevention, and to better support those who have survived abuse.

As revelations of widespread child abuse continue to emerge at an unprecedented rate, this book campaigns for change, offering policy makers and practitioners solutions for new ways in tackling sexual abuse, working alongside survivors to reduce its prevalence and impact.

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Gender Matters

Accounts of female offenders’ journeys into the criminal justice system are often silenced or marginalized.

Featuring a Foreword from Pat Carlen and inspired by her seminal book ‘Criminal Women’, this collection uses participatory, inclusive and narrative methodologies to highlight the lived experiences of women involved with the criminal justice system. It presents studies focused on drug use and supply, sex work, sexual exploitation and experiences of imprisonment.

Bringing together cutting-edge feminist research, this book exposes the intersecting oppressions and social control often central to women’s experiences of the justice system and offers invaluable insights for developing penal policies that account for the needs of women.

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Risk, responsivity and diversity

A great deal has been written about developing effective practice against a backdrop of rapid change in criminal justice services. Much of this is research-oriented and not always accessible to practitioners in their day-to-day work. This book changes that.

Drawing on research and integrating this with practitioner experience, the book creates fresh, research-based ‘practice wisdom’ for engaging effectively with offenders. It explores issues of risk, responsivity and diversity in the context of work with specific offender and offending behaviour groups as a means to highlight those skills and understandings which can be used across the wider range of work environments. The authors break down complex ideas to enable practical application, and each chapter includes questions for reflection and practice development.

With its accessible style, balancing academic rigour with clear pointers to best practice, this book will interest everyone working face to face with offenders. It recognises that there are no instant solutions to changing offending behaviour but provides a practice text that will encourage a sense of competence and confidence, enhancing readers’ skill and enthusiasm when working with a broad spectrum of offenders.

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Problems and Possibilities

Written by leading experts in the field, this timely collection highlights current strategies and thinking in relation to prevention of sexual violence and critically considers the limitations of these frameworks.

Combining psychological, criminological, sociological and legal perspectives, it explores academic, practitioner and survivor points of view. It addresses broad themes, from cultures of sexual harassment to the role of media in oversexualising women and girls, as well as specific issues including violence against children and older people.

For researchers, practitioners and students alike, this is an invaluable resource that maps new approaches for practice and prevention.

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From the Corston Report to Transforming Rehabilitation

This insightful book focuses on developments since the publication in 2007 of the Corston Report into women and criminal justice. While some of its recommendations were accepted by government, actual policy has restricted the scale and scope of change.

The challenges of working with women in the current climate of change and uncertainty are also explored, seeking to translate lessons from good practice to policy development and recommending future directions resulting from the coalition government’s Transforming Rehabilitation plans. This timely analysis engages with wide-ranging considerations for policy makers, providers and practitioners of services and interventions for women who offend, and questions whether women should be treated differently in the criminal justice system.

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