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11 CHAPTER ONE Possibilities for policy design Taking a design approach to addressing policy failings is about having a strong sense of what the alternatives could be; it is an inherently optimistic approach. Design principles have clear appeal in the current policy context. Design presents an alternative to mass-processing, allowing user adaptations to facilitate differentiation and deal with complexity. Rather than being wedded to a ‘policy presumption’, design opens up the possibility to experiment and learn through doing and possibly failing. Moreover

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33 CHAPTER THREE Co-productive policy design Design is about ‘designing schemes for designing institutions’ (Goodin, 1996 p. 28 cited in Lowndes and Roberts, 2013, p. 187). But design is ‘not a cookbook’; there is no simple fail-safe recipe to follow (Bobrow and Dryzek, 1987, p. 207; Boyer, Cook and Steinberg, 2011, p. 87). The stagist model of the policy process has been rejected in favour of an acknowledgement that policy is messy, political, chaotic, with many unforeseen and/or uncontrollable contingencies affecting outcomes (Bovens and t’Hart, 1996

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21 CHAPTER TWO Conventional policy design Chapter One set out heuristics that illuminated the underpinning and interlocking elements of policy design – power, vision and grammar – and contrasting policy designs, conventional and co-productive. It focused on the first of these elements – power – and how differing interpretations of power informs contrasting notions of policy design. This chapter builds on these heuristics to consider the vision and grammar of conventional policy designs. Vision reflects the recognition that policy design is political and

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177 FOUR Debating co-productive policy design The aim in this book is to frame a debate on how policy making may be better able to address some of the wicked and squishy problems facing societies. The intention has not simply been to offer an empirical description of how policy making works, though many of the contributions are illuminating in that regard. Rather, the aim is to initiate a conversation driven by theory and informed by practice, about how policy actors can imagine and realise a co-productive alternative to conventional policy design. The

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157 Policy design as co-design Michaela Howell and Margaret Wilkinson Drawing on an innovative co-design process, facilitated by the contributors, this vignette explores how practitioners have tried to make concrete the theory of co-design. The example highlights the deep challenges this presented to traditional ways of working and thinking. It concludes that a ‘leap of faith’ is sometimes needed for practitioners to see the benefits of unusual co-design processes. The illustrative example is of an attempt to redesign public services in one neighbourhood

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51 SECTION ONE Challenges and change within conventional policy design

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101 SECTION TWO Vision in co-productive policy design

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139 SECTION THREE Grammar in co-productive policy design

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Authors: Saba Siddiki and Cali Curley

Introduction Policy design scholars have investigated a wide range of questions, lending insights into how design situates within and affects the broader policymaking process. These questions include but are not limited to how the process of policy designing works and what shapes it ( Mosher, 1980 ; Salamon, 1981 ; Linder and Peters, 1984 ; Bobrow and Dryzek, 1987 ; May, 1991 ), as well as how we can better understand the content of policy ( Crawford and Ostrom, 1995 ; Siddiki et al, 2011 ). The specific foci of these questions correspond to unique

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Authors: Simon Burall and Tim Hughes

71 The hidden politics of policy design Simon Burall and Tim Hughes This contribution reflects on the experience of being involved in an attempt to collaboratively develop and model proposals for open government. The contributors thoughtfully and carefully set out a range of challenging issues for more collaborative forms of policy design, reflecting on the interests and experiences of different stakeholders from both government and civil society. In doing so, they show how politics and values are central, if often hidden, in policy making. In particular

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