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FOUR Categorising and policy making Joanne Britton Introduction The task of reconsidering policy requires that we take a closer look at processes of categorisation in policy making. Categorising is integral to the dynamics of the policy-making process so playing a key part in the conception, design and implementation of policies. It demonstrates very clearly how policy is above all a meaning-making process in which categories are symbolically constructed according to the policy- making context (Innes, 2002). Theorising policy entails considering both how

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119 Six Using local knowledge in policy making Adopted policies are often not the policies that technical evidence recommends as the best or even the second best. Policies are made not just on the basis of technical evidence, but also under the influence of non-technical forces, such as public opinion and political pressure. As discussed in Chapter Two, policies must be put into practice in a society which somehow must accommodate the vested interests of various pressure and special interest groups. The influence of these non-technical factors is important

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Chapter highlights 1. Describes three perspectives on policy and policy making: Policy analysis is research for policy: defining problems, seeking solutions, identifying trade-offs, estimating their effects, and making recommendations. Policy studies are research of policy and policy making: what policy is, who makes it, how policy makers understand problems, and limits to their influence. Critical policy analysis identifies: who is involved, who decides, who benefits, and how to challenge inequitable processes and outcomes. 2. Shows how all

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49 FOUR Policy making through a rhetorical lens ‘It’s all just rhetoric’ Jill Russell and Trisha Greenhalgh Different ways of seeing policy making Over the past 25 years a significant sociological and political science literature has accumulated on the complex relationship between evidence and policy, raising critical questions about many of the assumptions of the evidence-based policy movement, and positioning policy making more as a social practice and less a technical, scientific process (Majone, 1989; Stone, 1997; Bacchi, 2000; Klein, 2000; Fischer

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Chapter highlights 1. Compares different stories of UK policy making. The Westminster story describes the concentration of power in the hands of a few people at the heart of central government. It remains an important reference point even when it provides an inaccurate account of policy making. The complex government story describes the limits to central government control. It is more accurate but less easy to understand and connect to UK political norms. 2. Explores what happens when policy makers draw on both stories for different

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Chapter highlights 1. Describes the importance of policy and policy making to the study of UK politics. 2. Introduces three essential ways to research it, via policy analysis, policy studies and critical policy analysis. 3. Warns against equating UK politics with the Westminster story of power concentrated in the hands of government ministers. 4. Introduces an alternative complex government story, in which ministers can only influence a small proportion of their responsibilities. 5. Shows how to use these insights to analyse, explain and evaluate

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105 Inclusive policy making SIx inclusive policy making Catherine Bochel and Angela Evans This chapter examines ‘modern’, ‘inclusive’ approaches to policy making, considering in particular what is embraced by these concepts, the degree to which they are significantly different from previous approaches to policy making, and the extent to which it is possible to identify impacts on policy making and policy outcomes. It does this through: • a consideration of the main types/methods of policy making that government have identified as being associated with

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21 2 Evidence and policy making Paul Cairney Introduction The relationship between evidence and policy is far from straightforward. Perspectives range from the idealism of ‘evidence-driven policy making’ (where evidence sets the agenda and drives policy choices) to the pessimism of ‘policy-based evidence’ (where evidence is sought simply to legitimise pre-set policies). Viewing the evidence and policy relationship from either of these extremes tends to result in disillusionment: either the reality does not live up to the ideal, or evidence is considered as

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five Contemporary immigration policy making Overview This chapter examines some key features of immigration policy making that will be explored in greater depth in subsequent chapters dealing with Britain. It explores three main issues: first, the specific characteristics of immigration policy making and the complex and conflicting interests involved, which mean that immigration policy may produce unintended results; second, it looks at the impact of migration on different national models of citizenship and the extent to which

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47 Outward-looking policy making THREE outward-looking policy making Edward C. Page and Jane Mark-Lawson1 Travel broadens the mind. Thus the appeal of looking at how problems are addressed in other jurisdictions is that it allows the development of policies, procedures, practices or organisational structures that would not have been developed if inspiration or advice had simply been sought from close to home. When setting up a new form of regulation for, say, telecommunications, you do not have to confine yourself to looking at how telecommunications were

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