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journey, all this was yet to come. In this chapter, I describe some of the shifting narratives of self-understanding that have emerged among queer Christians in the past two decades, specifically, apologist and mosaic/radical inclusion scripts. These narratives of reconciliation reflect sociohistorical contexts and are enacted through individual engagement with specific reference groups that serve to authorize or legitimate different ways to be queer and Christian. I also explore briefly the recursive relationship between the availability or source of scripts, self

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33 TWO Poverty across states, nations, and continents Lee Rainwater, Timothy M. Smeeding and John Coder1 Introduction This chapter examines issues concerning regional variations in poverty, in particular, child poverty. That is, what difference does it make for our understanding of the situation of poverty in a country if one focuses not on the nation as a whole but on particular communities or other reference groups within the nation? In our case we are concerned especially with possible variations in child poverty rates among the 50 United States (plus the

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urban areas. Comparisons are made with people in rural former homeland areas which are shown to have similar levels of deprivation and service delivery dissatisfaction and yet have few such protests. People in informal urban areas rated infrastructure-related items higher than people in rural former homelands. It is argued that inequality and people’s reference groups could help explain these attitudinal discrepancies and the locations of protests. Introduction Thousands of South Africans feel marginalised and ignored, living in slum shacks, collecting water

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, impact); • the benefits to those who get involved (eg skills, experience, recognition); • the ethics of participation (rights, inclusion and empowerment). CYP can be involved in research at different stages (from developing a proposal to dissemination) and in different roles (from being part of a reference group for adult-led projects, to undertaking peer-led research). The degree to which CYP are involved in research will vary depending on the availability and interests of the individuals themselves, the nature of the research and the available resources

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Family Assistance published a report on its study in 1995 ( Citro and Michael, 1995 ). The report proposed a new approach for developing an official poverty measure for the US. The panel’s proposal would derive a new poverty line comprising an allowance for food, clothing and shelter, plus a small additional amount for other needs. The new poverty line would be updated annually based on changes in consumption of these necessities by a reference group of families in the general population – in other words, the poverty line would rise in real terms as the general

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and longitudinal research. We talk about sources of support and advice at this stage and in this context we also cover the use of reference groups. We discuss the use of secondary data and its implications, and look at how accessibility issues might be approached in the context of applying for ethics approval. In the social sciences we should make sure that the findings and any policy decisions based on them are applicable and useful to as many from the underlying population as possible. This translates into the requirement for a sample that is both

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, especially peers they know well, form a reference group for what they decide to do. Accounting first for individual-level personality characteristics such as risk-taking, it sees the learning of attitudes and the modelling of behaviours associated with either drug use or abstinence as a product of friends with whom an adolescent may associate. However, these associations are in turn affected by the strength of the bonds which adolescents possess, both within their immediate family and in the schools they attend. It also accounted for the strength of support and

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insisted that each funded pilot service should include some form of site-level user involvement process, and convened its own programme-level, cross-pilot National User Reference Group. This group allowed involved users from each pilot to come together separately from staff and, with assistance from Macmillan officers, work together to make a programme-level user contribution. Macmillan convened parallel programme-level events for all those involved in the pilots, and through these sought to facilitate collaboration between sites, improved user involvement

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in relation to all of its impacts. Barry John Milne et al 130 Collaboration between researchers and policy makers The project was supported by a public good research grant to researchers at the University of Auckland, New Zealand, who then sought policy makers and analysts to help with the development of the micro-simulation model and policy decision- support tool. Two representatives from each of four New Zealand government ministries – Health, Education, Justice, and Social Development – formed a ‘policy reference group’ for the project. No member of the

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human need to participate in his or her society is absolute, but that the means necessary to do that vary over time. The debate between Townsend and Sen focused on whether poverty could be regarded as an absolute or relative concept. With regard to the relation between income and health, the interest is whether health is affected by the absolute income level or by relative income, defined as one’s own income in relation to society as a whole or a particular reference group. As may be concluded from the Townsend–Sen debate, poverty in terms of reduced capabilities can

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