1 1 PHENOMENOLOGY, SOCIAL CONSTRUCTION, AND CRIMINALITY: SOME BEGINNING OBSERVATIONS Why phenomenology and social construction? Perhaps the first question the reader may consider when looking at the title of this book is simply put: “What is the phenomenology of the social construction of crime?” Though undoubtedly many readers are already familiar with the conceptual framework of phenomenology and social construction as specific philosophical approaches or as theoretical vehicles by which to describe a broad variety of phenomena which fall under the
117 6 Social construction of corruption Introduction The previous chapter provided a critical assessment of statebuilding in Afghanistan. It demonstrated that this has been shaped by ideals of the liberal peacebuilding paradigm and COIN. These externally driven policies have enhanced patronage relations. Moreover, entrenched corruption has become institutionalised, which has led to problems with the police sector. An anti-corruption strategy has done little to prevent Taliban remobilisation, further insecurity and the breakdown of the rule of law and
It is well known that the social definition of individuals and ethnic groups helps legitimize how they are addressed by law enforcement. The philosophy of the social construction of crime and criminal behaviour reflects how individuals, such as police officers, construct meaning from the perspective from which they emerge, which in turn influences their law enforcement outlook. In the field, this is generally viewed through a positivist frame of reference which fails to critically examine assumptions of approach and practice.
Written by an international specialist in this area, this is the first book which attempts to situate the social construction of crime and criminal behaviour within the philosophical context of phenomenology and how these constructions help inform, and ultimately justify, the policies employed to address them. Challenging existing thinking, this is essential reading for academics and students interested in social theory and theories of criminology.
Realism and constructivism are often viewed as competing paradigms for understanding international relations, though scholars are increasingly arguing that the two are compatible.
Edited by one of the leading proponents of realist constructivism, this volume shows what realist constructivism looks like in practice by innovatively combining exposition and critiques of the realist constructivist approach with a series of international case studies. Each chapter addresses a key empirical question in international relations and provides important guidance for how to combine both approaches effectively in research. Addressing future directions and possibilities for realist constructivism in international relations, this book makes a significant contribution to the theorizing of global politics.
Poverty is not a neutral phenomenon, nor are social inclusion programmes neutrally conceived, designed and implemented.Their ultimate nature is built upon ideas, values, actors, politics and economic constraints.This topical book is one of the first to examine the social and political construction of anti-poverty programmes in Central Eastern Europe and their transformation from communist rule to the current economic crisis. It covers the approach towards the ‘parasite’ poor through to Guaranteed Minimum Income Schemes and illustrates how the distinction between different categories of ‘deserving’ and ‘undeserving’ poor has evolved over the years as the result of changing paradigms, combined with the pressure exerted by domestic and international actors, the European Union and the World Bank among others. This text breaks new ground for social policy students and scholars interested in understanding how differently post-communist welfare states have represented, legitimised and dealt with poverty, need and social justice in accordance with divergent normative frameworks constructed at national level.
67 Evidence & Policy • vol 3 • no 1 • 2007 • xx-xx © The Policy Press • 2007 • ISSN 1744 2648 de ba te Evidence licy • 2007 • 67-78 The social construction of the cost of mental illness Nancy Wolff English Economists have given little attention to the social construction of illness and how it undergirds cost-of-illness estimates. Social construction captures the prevailing conceptions of normative behaviour. This article focuses on three of the most influential conceptions: the stigmatisation of mental illness and those who have a mental illness; the punitive
169 TEN ‘stamp on the Camps’: the social construction of Gypsies and Travellers in media and political debate Joanna Richardson and Richard O’Neill Language is legislation, speech is its code. We do not see the power which is in speech because we forget that all speech is a classification, and that all classifications are oppressive…. (Barthes, 1977, p 460) introduction This chapter examines the circular nature of anti-Gypsy discourse – that it allegedly reflects popular opinion, but also creates folk devils and moral panics (Cohen, 1972) that feed the
261 ‘Disadvantage’ FOURTEEN ‘Disadvantage’: transition policies between social construction and the needs of vulnerable youth René Bendit and Dermot Stokes Introduction Our changing perspectives on young people’s transitions across Europe are shaped by a complex weave of experience and circumstance. Of particular concern in this regard is the phenomenon of youth unemployment. This generates significant competition among those trying to enter the labour market, with two key outcomes. First, it makes the passage between school and training to work a very
2524 COERCION AND WOMEN CO-OFFENDERS THREE UNDERSTANDING THE SOCIAL CONSTRUCTION OF COERCED WOMEN Introduction This chapter will outline the feminist methodology deployed in the analysis of the case studies, which involved adopting a woman-centred approach to research and aims to gain a more nuanced understanding of the co-accused women’s experiences and stories (Letherby, 2003). The chapter will also discuss the benefits of using a case study approach in criminological research and will critically consider the strengths and limitations of this particular
25 THREE The social construction of the ‘real’ record Chapter One considered social work records from the perspective of their relative significance in the ‘doing of ’ social work. The discussion was concerned with the historical development of recording in social services, and the extent to which records are a subject of critical scrutiny and at the same time neglected. In this chapter we move on to a more considered discussion of the way social work records are produced and the various influences which shape the way they are written. We begin by