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109 FIVE Unemployment and work: precarious futures Introduction In Chapters Three and Four we concentrated on education and training, highlighting how Australian New Zealand, Canadian and UK efforts to respond to the growing concerns about skills shortages in the 1990s saw governments try to improve the ‘human capital’ of the young. In this chapter we turn our attention to young people’s relationship with paid work. Getting into paid work has always been a focal point in young people’s movement into independent adulthood and citizenship (Roberts, 2003

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75 FIVE Citizenship, unemployment and welfare policy Jørgen Goul Andersen Citizenship has become a key concept in many fields of social science, from the analysis of social rights to normative political theory and empirical research on political participation and political culture (Andersen and Hoff, 2001). With such a broad scope of applications a variety of meanings1 inevitably follows (van Gunsteren, 1998). This problem is aggravated by the fact that precise definitions are often missing in the literature. Definitions tend to be replaced by vague notions that

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77 SIX Unemployment institutions Summary Labour market and social security policies changed radically between 1971 and 1999, in ways that were often explicitly designed to influence the size of the unemployed caseload. Small-scale training and work experience schemes introduced in the 1970s were massively expanded in the 1980s, to provide surrogate employment and reduce the claimant count. For a period, some unemployed claimants were financially encouraged to leave the labour market. Resources devoted to training were then reduced, while new measures to tighten

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professional employees ( Gabriel et al 2013 ). However, with few remarkable exceptions ( Mendenhall et al 2008 ; Garrett-Peters, 2009 ; Riach and Loretto, 2009 ; Gabriel et al 2013 ; Gray et al 2015 ; Raito and Lahelma, 2015 ), the literature appears to lack studies that focus on late-career unemployment and attempted transitions out of unemployment among this group of workers – despite age-related issues having progressively become central in the public and political debate on employment. A rapidly ageing population is said to make older workers crucial for

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A comparative study
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This important new book presents the findings of the first comparative study of unemployed youth in Europe using a large and original data set. It addresses some of the key questions around the issue including:

How do young people cope with unemployment?

Does unemployment lead to social exclusion of young people, implying a withdrawal from society, financial deprivation and social isolation?

Drawing on a research sample of over 17000 young unemployed people in ten European countries, the book examines how different welfare strategies and labour market policies in different countries influence the risk of social exclusion among unemployed youth.

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229 ar tic le 2 © The Policy Press • 2010 • ISSN 1759-8273 Journal of Poverty and Social Justice • vol 18 • no 3 • 2010 • 229-42 • 10.1332/175982710X530525 Stress testing the UK welfare system for unemployment1 Francesco Figari, Andrea Salvatori, Holly Sutherland2 This article examines the resilience (or otherwise) of the United Kingdom social protection system in the face of increasing unemployment. It explores the extent to which benefits protect the household incomes of unemployed people both in relative terms and in comparison with an absolute income

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217 Unemployment and unemployment policy in Switzerland TWELVE Unemployment and unemployment policy in Switzerland George Sheldon Introduction Unemployment in Switzerland is low, by international standards. In 2001, unemployment averaged a mere 1.9%, compared to 7.8% in the EU and 4.8% in the US1. Swiss unemployment, however, has not always been this low. In fact, starting from 0.5% in 1990, the unemployment rate rose to 5.2% in just four years and topped off at an unprecedented 5.7% in the winter of 1997, before decreasing to its present level. Not even

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laying off of enormous contingents of workers in all sectors and at all levels of qualification. In Brazil as well, especially since the 1990s, there has been a deterioration of the labour market. Unemployment and precarious, inadequate working conditions have been a nationwide phenomenon. The process is intense and unprecedented in the country’s history. In the São Paulo Metropolitan Region alone, for example, the State Foundation for Data Analysis (Seade) estimates an unemployment rate for 2018 of approximately 17% of the economically active population (see www

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181 Unemployment and unemployment policy in Finland TEN Unemployment and unemployment policy in Finland Heikki Ervasti Introduction This chapter analyses Finnish labour markets and labour market policies. Finland achieved a solid growth rate between the mid-1970s and late 1980s, averaging 3.2% per annum between 1976 and 1989. During this period unemployment was comparatively low. However, the dominant feature of the Finnish economic landscape of the last two decades has been the recession in the early 1990s. During its gloomiest years (1991-93), Finnish GDP

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Unemployment, neoliberalism and the lost subject matter of ‘learning’ Questions pertaining to the learning processes of vulnerable long-term 1 unemployed individuals have been neglected academically within the field of research on unemployment and professionally within Danish back-to-work practices. The process of supporting unemployed adults in getting back into paid labour is rarely explicitly conceptualised in pedagogical-theoretical terms, for example as ‘learning’, which might be explained by the fact that the roots of the employment system are firmly

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