Introduction The number of people in need of care is growing steadily in many European countries because of population ageing and a rise in chronic illnesses ( Colombo et al, 2011 ). Countries handle this new demand for care differently. In Germany, individuals are encouraged by the long-term care insurance scheme (LTCI) to get care at home, provided by their family or friends, rather than institutional care ( Schulz, 2010 ). This non-institutional care is called ‘unpaid care’ (also often referred to as ‘informal care’): providing health-related care or help
129 SEVEN unpaid carers and adult social care provision overview As has been the case historically, in the UK most caring is unpaid and provided by families. This chapter examines the issues relating to this population, the current policies for unpaid carers and the implications of recent proposals for adult provision. It discusses the concept of ‘choice’ and whether the choice agenda with regard to social care extends to unpaid carers. It considers developments with regard to carers’ rights and entitlements and examines the financial implications for
Introduction Women have a marginalised position in the UK social security system. This ongoing disadvantaged position is related to the dominant gendered concept of citizenship, which is based around masculine activities, attributes and interactions with the paid labour market. To create a more inclusive citizenship framework, some feminists have argued that citizenship needs to be redefined to recognise the importance of unpaid care ( Knijn and Kremer, 1997 ; Sevenhuijsen, 2000 ; Tronto, 2001 ; Pateman, 2005 ). This would entail the implementation of
( Vlachantoni et al, 2015 ; Ilinca et al, 2017 ). Despite substantial unmet need for services, little research has been carried out on the consequences, though population-level studies suggest higher mortality among care recipients as a result of unmet need for health or care services ( Watkins et al, 2017 ). Care services for the person with care needs are often seen as simultaneously a service for the unpaid carer. This is the approach taken in English care policy ( Her Majesty’s Government, 2014 ), in some studies of care services ( Pickard, 2004 ; Rand and Malley, 2014
); nevertheless, the welfare reforms established a social security system that was based on masculine interactions with the paid labour market ( Lister, 2001 ), which resulted in inferior social security rights for women. For example, there was an assumption that men would undertake paid work and women would be responsible for unpaid care and domestic labour ( Sainsbury, 1996 ; Pascall, 1997 ). While Beveridge described women’s unpaid care as ‘vital work’ ( 1942 , p 53), under the welfare reforms and most notably the National Insurance Act 1946, men made contributions through
Introduction Unpaid care is the primary source of care for many Europeans who need help with daily living activities ( Chiatti et al, 2013 ; Verbeek-Oudijk et al, 2014 ). In many European countries, reforms in long-term care have been accompanied by an appeal to civic responsibility, self-care and caring for others ( Pavoline and Ranzi, 2008 ; Colombo et al, 2011 ). Governments are becoming increasingly reliant on unpaid carers, and yet are also aiming for increased labour participation. Those who are expected to work more, generally women and people over
overwhelming majority of care to adults with disabilities and who are ageing ( CBO, 2013 ; AARP, 2015 ). In 2015, more than 34 million Americans had provided unpaid care to an adult over age 50 in the previous 12 months ( AARP, 2015 ). Even with the rise in female labour force participation over time, in 2015, 64 per cent of family carers of ageing adults (including spouses) were women, which is a proportion showing no significant change since 1990 ( Wolff et al, 2017 ). Is transferring time to a parent equally distributed by socio-economic status across the population of
425 International Journal of Care and Caring • vol 2 • no 3 • 425–31 • © Policy Press 2018 Print ISSN 2397-8821 • Online ISSN 2397-883X • https://doi.org/10.1332/239788218X15351945466012 debates and issues SPECIAL ISSUE • The care ethics moment: International innovations Engaging men as fathers and caregivers: an entry point to advancing women’s empowerment and rights Joni van de Sand, firstname.lastname@example.org Laxman Belbase Sinéad Nolan MenEngage Global Alliance, UK Engaging men and boys to do unpaid care work is key to achieving gender justice. This article
For generations women have experienced disadvantage in the paid labour market, the devaluation of their unpaid caring roles and multiple constraints on their agency.
This book analyses fresh empirical evidence which demonstrates the gendered impacts of the new conditionality regime within Universal Credit. It shows how the regime affects women's unpaid caring roles, their position in the paid labour market and their agency regarding engagement in unpaid care and paid work. Ultimately, it highlights the impacts on low-income women's position in the UK social security system and society.
Drawing on in-depth interviews with mothers, this book offers a compelling narrative and crucial policy recommendations to improve the gendered impact of Universal Credit and make the social citizenship framework in the UK more inclusive of women.
Since the early 1990s, long-term care policies have undergone significant transformations across OECD countries. In some countries these changes have responded to the introduction of major policy reforms while in others, significant transformations have come about through the accumulation of incremental policy changes.
The book brings together evidence from over 15 years of care reform to examine changes in long-term care systems occurring in OECD countries. It discusses and compares key changes in national policies and examines the main successes and failures of recent reforms. Finally, it suggests possible policy strategies for the future in the sector.
With contributions from a wide range of experts across EECD countries, this book is essential reading for academics, researchers and policy-makers in the field of long-term care policy.