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9 TWO Urban policy and communities Stuart Wilks-Heeg Introduction In one form or another, all UK governments since 1945 have pursued policies aimed at addressing urban problems. A concern with community has been evident throughout, although the assumptions about how communities would be engaged with, and benefit from, these policies have varied enormously. In the first two decades after the end of the Second World War, communities were regarded as the passive beneficiaries of planned decentralisation to new towns and the replacement of ‘slums’ with modern

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207 TEN Urban policy: addressing wicked problems Tony Harrison Introduction: urban policy and the problem of evidence Urban policy – or policy designed to arrest the economic and social decline of either parts of cities, whole settlements, or even (more recently) cities in general (Urban Task Force, 1999) – has been a feature of UK policy for more than 30 years. Its origins are generally traced back to the Educational Priority Area programmes of the late 1960s and to the launch of the Urban Programme by Harold Wilson in 1968 following Enoch Powell’s ‘rivers of

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37 Social capital, regeneration and urban policy TWO Social capital, regeneration and urban policy Ade Kearns Introduction From social exclusion to social capital According to the Prime Minister’s Special Adviser Geoff Mulgan when New Labour came to power in 1997, discussion among policy makers and policy commentators was dominated by the language of social exclusion (Mulgan, 1998b). An observer noted that: The term social exclusion has great appeal to many people because it provides a broad category that many people can identify their policy concern with

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223 The new urban policy ELEVEN The new urban policy: towards empowerment or incorporation? The practice of urban policy Allan Cochrane Introduction If there is a core understanding that underpins the practice of urban policy in England it is, unfortunately, a rather banal one1. As the foreword to the White Paper, Our towns and cities, puts it: “How we live our lives is shaped by where we live our lives” (DETR, 2000e, para 3) – and most of us now live in urban areas. Urban policy, in other words, can be understood as the attempt to shape the places in which our

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3 REFRAMING URBAN POLICY William Solesbury The inner city as a political issue has had a rare longevity. From Harold Wilson's expansionof the Urban Programmein 1968, through the new economic perspective embodied in the 1977 White Paper, to Margaret Thatcher's declaration of having 'a big job to do in those inner cities' on election night in 1987-the issue has always beenprominent. This paper examines ways in which the issuehasbeen'framed' over the last decade. It draws on contrasts between state and market mechanisms, the relationships between central and local

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3 Community and the changing nature of urban policy ONE Community and the changing nature of urban policy Rob Imrie and Mike Raco Introduction Throughout the 1980s and early 1990s, urban policy was dominated by property-led regeneration. Behind this regeneration lay the diagnosis of our cities’ problems as a shortfall of physical infrastructure to support the activities of global corporate investors. The removal of supply-side constraints to investment in cities, including the minimisation of local government and community involvement in planning for

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This chapter reviews the various urban policy programmes which have attempted to renew and regenerate London’s deprived estates. The chapter begins with a brief overview of ‘old’ urban renewal in its post-war slum clearance form, and its ‘new urban renewal’ form as estate regeneration. It then traces the development of estate-based programmes from the 1980s to the 2010s, and in so doing employs a binary early-contemporary periodisation. The early period (1980s to 1990s) included relatively generous public subsidies. Contemporary regeneration dates from the late

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25 THREE Social mix and urban policy Patrick Le Galès Introduction A first difficulty that is encountered in producing a book such as this is the question of definition: what does ‘social mix’ really mean beyond the spatial coexistence of different social and ethnic groups in a given neighbourhood? The least that can be argued is that social mix is not very stabilised as a concept. All societies are mixed one way or another. Social mix could be defined by what it is not: the extreme concentration of some social or ethnic groups, that is, super- bourgeois

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Part Two Community involvement in urban policy

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205 Economy, equity or empowerment? TEN Economy, equity or empowerment? New Labour, communities and urban policy evaluation Stuart Wilks-Heeg Introduction You would be forgiven, reader, for approaching a chapter on policy evaluation with feelings of intense indifference. Policy evaluation may well suggest a purely bureaucratic or technical exercise, of interest only to those obsessed with the minutiae of policy design, research methodology and data collection. Such perceptions are undoubtedly underpinned by much of the literature on evaluation, which has tended

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