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The concept of what it means to be a victim began in ancient times. The Latin word victima referred to living creatures, animal or human, who were offered as sacrifices to a god or other supernatural entity. As such, the term was not associated with crime but religious rituals. However, over the centuries it has come to have a more general meaning and now it commonly refers to individuals who suffer injuries, losses or hardships for any reason. A crime victim is harmed specifically by illegal acts ( Karmen, 2016 ). The role that victims, and the changing

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41 4 THE VICTIM’S PERSPECTIVE Hate crime is an attack on an individual’s actual or perceived identity or identities. As such, it is recognised that the consequences of hate crime can have longer-lasting impacts than non-hate crime (Iganski, 2008; Kees et al, 2016). There is a range of groups that are potential victims of hate crime, for example, migrants or refugees, Muslim women, disabled people, and gypsies, Travellers and Roma. Their relative stigmatised position in society means that their knowledge of, experience of and access to services will range

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Rural offenders and victims experience the same sorts of crime as their urban neighbours, but studies have found that the context and meaning of those crimes differ dramatically. Specifically, rural victims are vastly more affected by certain crimes, just as rural offenders are vastly more enabled to commit them. These differences in experience of crime are due, primarily, to the tropes or rhetorical devices used to depict and to understand rural crime. Drawing upon research by Moody (2002) , Marshall and Johnson (2005) and Youngsen et al (2021) , the

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37 4 Victims’ experiences Numbers of victims In this section we explore the experiences of victims who have been contacted by the Leeds YOS and examine the different options for victim input. According to the data, during the six months between 1 April and 30 September 2004, a total number of 211 referral orders commenced with a first panel meeting. In 64 of these cases no victim was identified. Of the 147 cases in which at least one victim was identified, a victim attended a panel meeting in only 13 cases. This represents an attendance rate of less than 9

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55 In order to find out how different community groups and victims felt about the effectiveness of Anti-Social Behaviour Orders (ASBOs), seven focus groups were conducted in communities that had been affected by high levels of anti- social behaviour and where ASBOs had been used. One of the focus groups was not directly related to specific ASBO cases, but was included in the survey to provide some insight into the attitudes of residents towards ASBOs in locations not directly affected by anti-social behaviour. Fourteen in-depth interviews with victims and

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113 EIGHT Responding to the needs of victims of Islamophobia Irene Zempi Introduction Support for victims of crime is a fundamental part of a civilised justice system. However, in the current climate of austerity – with the police, courts, prisons, probation and support services facing significant financial cuts – the criminal justice system in the UK falls short of meeting the different and changing needs of communities across the country. As I write this chapter, the police service face a 20% cut in their budget. Undoubtedly, this reality challenges the

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1 one a victim-centred approach to conceptualising ‘hate crime’ While it might seem unwise to open a book by picking apart its title, it is a necessary step in unfolding the argument in the following pages. The term ‘hate crime’ has no legal status in the UK. No law uses the term. Yet the police and other criminal justice agents have enthusiastically embraced it. This has occurred in the decade since the then ‘New’ Labour government introduced penalty enhancement for racially aggravated offences under section 28 of the 1998 Crime and Disorder Act, the

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25 PART I Exploring the ‘Ideal Victim

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1 Part I Victims and Justice

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Social identities in late modernity ONe Social identities in late modernity: offender and victim identity constructions Introduction The subject of the construction of social identity in contemporary western societies is a growing area of research interest. Conceptualising today’s society as late modernity, fluid modernity or postmodernity (amongst other signifiers), researchers argue that social identities have become increasingly problematic and contestable as a result of the demise of the so-called ‘Golden Age’ of post-war Europe and North America of

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