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123 FIVE The welfare state debate 10 October 1950 Dear Taoiseach The Archbishops and Bishops of Ireland at their meeting on October 10th had under consideration the proposals for a Mother and Child health service and other kindred medical services. They recognise that these proposals are motivated by a sincere desire to improve public health, but they feel bound by their office to consider whether the proposals are in accordance with Catholic moral teaching. In their opinion the powers taken by the State in the proposed Mother and Child Health Service are

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13 ONE Why the welfare state matters The concept of a welfare state has strong normative connotations. It is conceptually associated with a commitment to both democracy and social justice. Democracy – which encompasses human rights, citizen’s voice and participatory decision-making power, freedom of information, and many other factors – is a prerequisite to striving for and genuinely accepting social justice. It is also necessary to create the societal and political coalitions necessary to achieve at least acceptable levels of social justice, and at the

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1 ONE introduction: modernising the welfare state Martin Powell ‘A new dawn has broken. Isn’t it wonderful?... We have been elected as New Labour and we will govern as New Labour.’ (Tony Blair, election night, 2 May 1997) introduction This is the third book in what I am terming my ‘New Labour trilogy’. The first book, New Labour, new welfare state (Powell, 1999), was one of the first books to examine the social policy of New Labour’s ‘Third Way’. The second book, Evaluating New Labour’s welfare reforms (Powell, 2002), focused on manifesto promises and

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99 SIX The welfare state: whose consensus? No-one can seriously deny that, whatever else Thatcherism represents, it embodies a genuine ideological break with the social democratic post-war consensus (Phil Lee, Marxism Today, May 1983) The Conservative Policy is simply more (or rather less) of the same. (Ian Gough, Marxism Today, July 1980) (The above two quotes originally juxtaposed by Taylor- Gooby, 1985, 71) How can wealth persuade poverty to use its political freedom to keep wealth in power? Here lies the whole art of Conservative politics in the

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9 ONE social justice and the welfare state Before exploring the role of the law, and access to legal advice and advocacy as the background to the study of Law Centres, this chapter summarises the framework of earlier debates (Marshall, 1950; Titmuss, 1968) on social citizenship and the welfare state. How did some of these debates conceptualise public policy interventions to promote social rights such as rights to education, health, welfare and social security, and what were the implications for access to justice? These approaches have been challenged from

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159 EIGHT Welfare state institutions and secessionary neighbourhood spaces John Flint introduction The welfare state has always been associated with attempts to forge a cohesive sense of British identity and a contractual reaffirmation of the relationship between state and citizen. It is no coincidence, for example, that the housing pillar of publicly funded welfare during the 20th century was strengthened in the aftermath of the two world wars that so powerfully shaped the understanding of Britishness: the ‘Homes for Heroes’ campaign after 1918 and

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597 Policy & Politics • vol 43 • no 4 • 597-614 • © Policy Press 2015 • #PPjnl @policy_politics Print ISSN 0305 5736 • Online ISSN 1470 8442 • http://dx.doi.org/10.1332/147084414X14081190124376 research provocations Making the case for the welfare state Peter Taylor-Gooby, p.f.taylor-gooby@kent.ac.uk University of Kent, UK The UK welfare state is under attack from harsh spending cuts, focused particularly on women, children, low-paid people and claimers of working age, and a restructuring programme. This paper examines why it is hard to make a case for

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81 FIVE The principles of the welfare state We need the spirit of Dunkirk and of the Blitz sustained over a period of years. (Labour Party Manifesto, 1945) Here then is our new scheme of social security for all. I believe that it will increase the health and happiness of our peoples and I ask you all to join in working wholeheartedly for it so that it may bring new strengthen and well-being to our country. (Clement Attlee, Prime Minister, 4 July 1948, quoted in Kynaston, 2008, 284) This chapter focuses on the principles underpinning the post-war welfare

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113 SEVEN Food charity and the changing welfare state The focus of this chapter is the role of the state in respecting, protecting and fulfilling the human right to food. Building on the work in Chapter Six on the role of charities, the role of the state is explored through the lens of social protection, specifically the ways in which state-provided social protection, through a welfare state, impacts on food insecurity and interacts with the rise of emergency food provision. The particular focus here is on the relationship between the changing welfare

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147 Policy & Politics vol 39 no 2 • 147-61 (2011) • 10.1332/030557310X519641 © The Policy Press, 2011 • ISSN 0305 5736 Key words: risk society • individualisation • solidarity • welfare state • transition Original submission July 2009 • Acceptance April 2010 Does risk society erode welfare state solidarity? Peter Taylor-Gooby An influential literature suggests that the transition from modern industrial society is accompanied by an erosion of solidarities. Everyday life risks become understood as issues of personal failure and responsibility rather than

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