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. The literature on IPV suggests that the developmental impacts of witnessing IPV in family-of-origin may contribute to a female child’s later vulnerability for intimate partner victimisation through mimicking the behaviours of the people involved in the original violence and adapting unhealthy relationships norms ( Holt et al, 2008 ). Since the family is the most crucial source of learning and a primary agent of socialisation, aggression demonstrated by parents provides a pattern of behaviour and teaches children appropriateness and the consequences of such a

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rather than any newfound interest in parent abuse per se). In particular, research suggests that witnessing IPV is linked to later perpetration of parent abuse (eg, Cornell and Gelles, 1982; McCloskey and Lichter, 2003; Ullman and Straus, 2003; Boxer et al, 2009; Kennedy et al, 2010) and that the perpetration of parent abuse co-occurs with parent-to-child abuse (eg, Cornell and Gelles, 1982; Hartz, 1995; Browne and Hamilton, 1998; Brezina, 1999; Ullman and Straus, 2003; Boxer et al, 2009).4 other research has identified links between parent abuse and

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separate questions with a yes/no response were created for assessing the abuse of children. Women with children were asked whether they: 1) had witnessed IPV; 2) had suffered violence from the abuser. A synthetic variable was created including any type of children involvement in violence (witnessing IPV; suffering direct violence; violence during pregnancy). Analysis Analyses were conducted only among those women who were victims of partner or ex-partner violence (IPV). Descriptive analyses were performed in order to determine the frequency of violence and the

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undergo years of learning in a variety of intensely influential cultural settings’ (p 175). Much subsequent research has countered key concepts of the intergenerational transmission of IPV. Research by Roberts et al ( 2010 ), using data from the US National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, notes that although men who experienced IPV in childhood were more likely to perpetrate IPV, 71 per cent of male perpetrators had not witnessed IPV during their childhood. They deduce that ‘other factors account for the majority of male intimate partner violence

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care. Such fears have been documented in relation to parents’ fears of social care involvement in cases of IPV (Stanley et al, 2009) and suspected child abuse (Cleaver and Freeman, 1995). Given that some research has established links between parent abuse and earlier experiences of child abuse and/or witnessing IPV (see Chapter one), it is entirely feasible that young people involved in parent abuse are already known to children’s social care departments. However, there are concerns about making assumptions about ‘cycles of violence’ and identifying children

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Current understandings in research, policy and practice
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While much has been written about the problematic behaviour of young people and their families, there has been silence on the problem of young people behaving abusively towards their parents, which may take the form of physical, economic and/or emotional abuse. This is the first academic book to focus on adolescent-to-parent abuse and brings together international research and practice literature and combines it with original research to identify and critique current understandings in research, policy and practice. It discusses what we know about parents’ experiences of adolescent-to-parent abuse and critically examines how it has been explained from psychological, sociological and sociocultural perspectives. It also outlines how policymakers and practitioners can usefully respond to the problem.

This unique book adopts a range of theoretical and practice perspectives. Written in an accessible style, it is an essential tool for academics, policymakers and professionals with an interest in domestic violence, child protection and youth offending.

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