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PART I Women

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147 SEVEN Campaigns for women’s freedom from violence Introduction The women who participated in this research project have provided compelling evidence of the long-term negative effects that gendered violence is likely to have on individual women and their children across interconnected aspects of everyday life. Both the quantitative data and the women’s accounts uncover the damage caused by such violence to their mental health and identity, employment and income, and their housing and social engagement. However, their experiences are not uncommon for

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69 Six women1 Philanthropy amongst women of wealth in Europe is not new. Marita Haibach, in ‘Contemporary Women’s Philanthropy in Germany’ (1999) cites as an example Hedwig Heyl (1850‒1933), a female entrepreneur based in Berlin, who not only contributed a significant part of her wealth to the women’s rights movement but also raised funds from individuals and businesses. We can go much further back than that in tracing women’s philanthropy. For example, as Filiz Bikmen points out, citing Murat Çizakça (2000), women established almost 40% of the 2

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The challenge of violence against women should be recognised as an issue for the state, citizenship and the whole community. This book examines how responses by the state sanction violence against women and shape a woman’s citizenship long after she has escaped from a violent partner.

Drawing from a long-term study of women’s lives in Australia, including before and after a relationship with a violent partner, it investigates the effects of intimate partner violence on aspects of everyday life including housing, employment, mental health and social participation.

The book contributes to theoretical explanations of violence against women by reframing it through the lens of sexual politics. Finally, it offers critical insights for the development of social policy and practice.

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Identity and Mental Wellbeing through the Lifecourse

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Gendering Women is an engaging and accessible account of how constructions of femininity fundamentally affect women’s mental wellbeing through the life course.

Led by women’s life history accounts of growing up and growing older in the north of England, this book shows how experiences of becoming and being a woman – in family life, education, employment, motherhood and situations of violence – both enable and erode self confidence and esteem. The challenges to women’s mental wellbeing cut across age and class differences and have profound impacts on the material conditions of women’s lives throughout the life course. This is in turn a driver of inequality that is often under-recognised in mainstream policy.

Based on feminist and ethnographically informed research with over five hundred women Gendering women provides a critical link between gender theory and the lived realities of women’s daily lives and will appeal to students and academics in sociology and social sciences.

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227 8 Four Women In the social division of labour the work of articulating the local and particular existence of actors to the abstracted conceptual mode of ruling is done typically by women. (Smith 1987: 81) One basic dilemma of social research concerns the aggregation of data. Combining information from different sources and different individuals is necessary in order to arrive at a composite picture; indeed, this is the essence of the ‘quantitative’ method. But, in the process of doing this, the uniqueness of individual standpoints – the core of the

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Challenging or maintaining the status quo?

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Women are at the heart of civil society organisations. Through them they have achieved many successes, challenged oppressive practices at a local and global level and have developed outstanding entrepreneurial activities. Yet Civil Service Organisation (CSO) research tends to ignore considerations of gender and the rich history of activist feminist organisations is rarely examined.

This collection examines the nexus between the emancipation of women, and their role(s) in these organisations. Featuring contrasting studies from a wide range of contributors from different parts of the world, it covers emerging issues such as the role of social media in organising, the significance of religion in many cultural contexts, activism in Eastern Europe and the impact of environmental degradation on women’s lives. Asking whether involvement in CSOs offers a potential source of emancipation for women or maintains the status quo, this anthology will also have an impact on policy and practice in relation to equal opportunities.

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45 THREE Social work and women’s oppression today Laura Penketh Introduction In the Bailey and Brake collection, there was no specific chapter on women’s oppression, but the position of women in society and the ideas and perspectives of the women’s movement were embedded within the book and formed a central part of the radical social work revival in the 1970s. This chapter seeks to explore social work and women’s oppression with a focus on gender and class. It will mainly discuss the lives of poorer working-class women who are overrepresented as service

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101 Part Two Different women, different perspectives

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Key messages Despite improvement in the numbers of women in parliaments, representative democracy continues to fail women. ‘Poverty of representation’ captures the intersectional ways in which women are both under-represented and misrepresented. We call for the formal presence within existing legislatures of ‘affected representatives of women’. Feminist democratic representation incentivises elected representatives to meet the needs of diverse women. Introduction A lot can be said about the failure of representative democracy to do good by women

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