MAPPA: learning the lessons
Hazel Kemshall and Jason Wood
Introduction and context
The 1990s saw a growing preoccupation with high-risk offenders, particularly their accurate identification, reliable risk assessment and effective risk management. By the turn of the century this preoccupation had also
extended to youngoffenders, and included the formalised use of risk assessment
tools and increasing attention to the early identification of those youngoffenders
likely to become ‘dangerous’ (see Kemshall, 2008a, for a full review). A key
people identify youth crime as the single most
important crime problem today
Table 2.1 shows that when participants were provided with response options, no
single crime problem was identified by a majority of respondents1. Drug-related
crime was the problem identified as the most important by the largest minority
(35% of the sample). Crime by sex offenders was identified by just over one
quarter of the sample, and terrorist crime by 16% 2 . Crime by youngoffenders
was the fourth most frequently cited response, accounting for 15% of the sample.
This pattern of
Anchoring identity: the construction
of responsibility for and by youngoffenders in the US
This chapter poses some theoretical propositions and raises questions for
empirical analysis about young people’s perspectives on responsibility
in the context of a criminal case. Legally coercive interventions which
are administered to youngoffenders in the juvenile courts are said to
be aimed at re-shaping, responsibilising and governing young people’s
selves (Muncie and Hughes, 2002; Muncie, 2006). This responsibilising
Mental health, risk and
antisocial behaviour in youngoffenders: challenges and
Sue Bailey, Robert Vermeiren and Paul Mitchell
There is a significant overlap between the risk factors for offending, poor mental health and substance misuse and the number of assessed risk factors increases as a young person moves further into the youth justice
system (Youth Justice Board, 2005b).
For several reasons, high rates of mental disorders may be expected in young
people in contact with youth justice services. First, prevalence rates of
Multi-Agency Public Protection Arrangements (MAPPA) are now one of the central features of government policy in the UK for managing the risk presented by violent and sexual offenders. Although there has been research and debate concerning the use of MAPPA with adult offenders, their application to young people has received relatively little attention until now.
Multi-Agency Public Protection Arrangements & Youth Justice extends the existing literature on public protection. It provides a detailed exploration of MAPPA policy and practice in order to prompt further debate about the implications of the risk paradigm for young people and youth justice practitioners.
In the book, key academics, practitioners and policy makers consider a range of theoretical and practical issues raised by the introduction of MAPPA including risk and children’s rights, the use of professional discretion by practitioners, alternative approaches to risk management and suggestions for future policy development. It will be of interest to both professionals and academics working with young offenders and in youth justice.
It is a key aim of current youth justice policy to introduce principles of restorative justice and involve victims in responses to crime. This is most evident in the referral order and youth offender panels established by the Youth Justice and Criminal Evidence Act 1999. However, the challenges involved in delivering a form of restorative youth justice that is sensitive to the needs of victims are considerable.
This report provides an illuminating evaluation of the manner in which one Youth Offending Service sought to integrate victims into the referral order process. The study affords in-depth insights into the experiences and views of victims and young people who attended youth offender panel meetings. It places these in the context of recent policy debates and principles of restorative justice.
The report tracks a 6 month cohort of cases in 2004; provides an analysis of in-depth interviews with victims, young offenders and their parents; highlights the challenges associated with integrating victims into restorative youth justice; offers recommendations with regard to the involvement of victims in referral orders.
This timely report will be of great value to youth justice policy-makers and practitioners, researchers and students of criminology and criminal justice, as well as all those interested in restorative interventions and the role of victims in the justice process.
Boys and young men have been previously overlooked in domestic violence and abuse policy and practice, particularly in the case of boys who are criminalised and labelled as gang-involved by the time they reach their teens.
Jade Levell offers radical and important insights into how boys in this context navigate their journey to manhood with the constant presence of violence in their lives, in addition to poverty and racial marginalisation. Of equal interest to academics and front-line practitioners, the book highlights the narratives of these young men and makes practice recommendations for supporting these ‘hidden victims’.
Can the boxing gym be recognised as an effective space for supporting desistance?
Exploring the psychosocial manifestations of boxing, this enlightening study reviews conflicting evidence to determine boxing’s place in the criminal justice system.
Drawing upon the empirical insights, with case studies of participants’ backgrounds and their motivations for taking up the sport, Jump measures the value of the discipline, as well as the respect and fraternity that some claim boxing provides for young men. This is a perceptive addition to the debate about sport’s role in criminal desistance that delves deep into themes of masculinity and violence.
This report presents the findings from the first national, representative survey of public attitudes to youth crime and youth justice in England and Wales.
Significantly, it highlights that most people are demonstrably ill-informed about youth crime and youth justice issues. It also carries clear policy implications in relation to both public education and reform of the youth justice system.
Youth crime and youth justice is essential reading for academics, researchers, policy makers and practitioners in the fields of criminal justice, criminology, social policy, social work and probation.
Researching Criminal Justice series
Crime and justice are issues of central political and public concern in contemporary Britain. This exciting new series presents top quality research findings in the field. It will contribute significantly to policy and practice debates and aims to improve the knowledge base considerably. The series will be essential reading for politicians and policy makers, academics, researchers and practitioners.
For other titles in this series, please follow the series link from the main catalogue page.
Over the last decade, the reformed youth justice system has seen increases in the numbers of children and young people in custody, a sharp rise in indeterminate sentences and the continuing deaths of young prisoners. The largest proportion of funding in youth justice at national level is spent on providing places for children and young people remanded and sentenced to custody.
The publication of the Youth Crime Action Plan during 2008 and the increasing emphasis on early intervention provides a framework to consider again the interface between local services and secure residential placements.
This report brings together contributions from leading experts on young people and criminal justice to critically examine current policy and practice. There are vital questions for both policy and practice on whether the use of custody reduces re-offending or whether other forms of residential placements are more effective long-term. The report looks at current approaches to the sentencing and custody of children and young people, prevention of re-offending and a range of alternative regimes.