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55 THREE The limits of network governance Introduction Chapter Two suggested that there is little direct empirical evidence pointing to the emergence of authentic connectionist practices. On the contrary, much of the literature highlights barriers to this outcome. This chapter explores key themes in the critical literatures, highlighting the empirical basis for a critique of network governance theory: that it misreads both past and present, that governance networks are prone to resolving into hierarchies and incremental closure, that they reproduce

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587© The Policy Press, 2012 • ISSN 0305 5736 Key words: governancenetworks • overview • new public governance Policy & Politics vol 40 no 4 • 587–606 (2012) • http://dx.doi.org/10.1332/030557312X655431 Governance network theory: past, present and future Erik-Hans Klijn and Joop Koppenjan This article argues that governance network theory (GNT) has developed into a fully fledged theory that has gained prominence within public administration. The emergence of New Public Governance opens up new challenges, however, and instead of governance networks and

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The public sector is going through a period of fundamental change. Service delivery, policy making and policy processes are being carried out by new actors and organisations with new interests, methods and discourses, related to the emergence of new forms of governance.

This timely book from bestselling author Stephen Ball and Carolina Junemann uses network analysis and interviews with key actors to address these changes, with a particular focus on education and the increasingly important role of new philanthropy. Critically engaging with the burgeoning literature on new governance, they present a new method for researching governance - network ethnography- which allows identification of the increasing influence of finance capital and education businesses in policy and public service delivery.

In a highly original and very topical analysis of the practical workings of the Third Way and the Big Society, the book will be useful to practicing social and education policy analysts and theorists and ideal supplementary reading for students and researchers of social and education policy.

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31 TWO Network governance policy Introduction This chapter begins by briefly exploring the relationship between academic theory and public policy. It then explains how network governance became the orthodoxy in global public policy. It thirdly explores a paradigm case, the UK, and the socioeconomic conditions and ideas that made building governance networks a cardinal governing principle under New Labour. In doing so, it highlights the political claims for network governance subjected to critique in Chapter Three. The chapter concludes that in contrast

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9 ONE The network governance milieu Introduction Chapter One begins by exploring core ideas in network governance theory understood as the ‘orthodoxy’. It then discusses the variety of approaches that espouse post-traditional ideas about changing forms of governance. The second part of the chapter explores the intellectual roots of post-traditional thinking through the lens of the theory of reflexive modernisation, perhaps the most influential social-theoretical current in contemporary public policy. The chapter concludes by considering the influence of

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101 FIVE From network governance to hegemony Introduction To recap, Chapter Three argued that actual-existing governance networks appear dysfunctional from the standpoint of post-traditional governance theory, tending to replicate practices they were meant to surpass. Chapter Four argued that the basis for explaining this puzzle is that the social, political and economic conditions for widespread and sustainable network governance do not exist. If so, the phenomenon of governance networks must be explained in terms other than those of network governance

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From networks to hegemony

Theories heralding the rise of network governance have dominated for a generation. Yet, empirical research suggests that claims for the transformative potential of networks are exaggerated. This topical and timely book takes a critical look at contemporary governance theory, elaborating a Gramscian alternative. It argues that, although the ideology of networks has been a vital element in the neoliberal hegemonic project, there are major structural impediments to accomplishing it. While networking remains important, the hierarchical and coercive state is vital for the maintenance of social order and integral to the institutions of contemporary governance. Reconsidering it from Marxist and Gramscian perspectives, the book argues that the hegemonic ideology of networks is utopian and rejects the claim that there has been a transformation from 'government' to 'governance'. This important book has international appeal and will be essential reading for scholars and students of governance, public policy, human geography, public management, social policy and sociology.

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, global health governance has been fundamentally flawed for many years, because of the prominent role of private actors such as the Gates Foundation. Do we need to return to the intergovernmental system of the WHO or should we proceed with giving a major say to private–public networks? Concepts of global economic governance The study of global economic governance provides us with ample analytical instruments in order to put these developments in place. For uninformed observers, the WHO may look like the powerful global authority on all health issues. International

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1 oNE Policy networks and new governance The focus of this book is on ongoing and related changes in education policy, policy networks and governance in England; in particular, the increasing participation of philanthropy and business in policy and service delivery. In this chapter we will sketch out the conceptual terrain across which our analysis moves and introduce some of the key ideas that we draw upon and deploy later. However, this is neither an exhaustive review of the literatures on policy networks and network governance nor an attempt to engage

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129 SIx Networks, heterarchies and governance – and the beginning of the end of state education? In this chapter we will draw together some of the main themes and issues addressed in the previous chapters and return to some key questions and difficulties signalled previously. In particular we seek to answer, or at least tackle, the very basic questions invested in the object of this analysis – network governance. That is, can we make a case for the shift from government to governance, at least in relation to education, and thus can we distinguish between

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