Criminology

Our growing Criminology list takes a critical stance and features boundary-pushing work with innovative, research-led publications.  

A particular focus of the list are books that engage with our global social challenges, both on a local and international level. We aim to publish books in a wide range of formats that will have real impact and shape public discourse. 

Criminology

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Children’s agency and resilience within situations of domestic abuse has been the focus of recent research, with an emphasis on children’s voices to inform knowledge. This has been underpinned by a move away from the witness model of domestic abuse. This article contributes to this growing understanding of how children react, respond, and interact when living with domestic abuse.

Qualitative interviews were completed with 16 relevant professionals, and 13 adult survivors of childhood domestic abuse. The research overall was conducted through the lens of the home to provide enhanced insight into day-to-day experiences of domestic abuse. Factors associated with resilience were part of an initial research question, whereas agency emerged as a strong theme through the analysis process.

This research has demonstrated that children engage in varying degrees of agency or display behaviours associated with resilience to cope with situations of domestic abuse, prevent or stop escalation of abuse or as protection for themselves and others. This article argues that agency and resilience can occur in contexts where adults – both inside and outside the home – have not prevented children from experiencing domestic abuse and its impacts. This has been conceptualised as children operating in the context of a ‘vacuum of responsibility’.

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In response to evidence documenting the scale and impact of sexual violence (SV) and domestic abuse (DA) in universities, recommend implementation of a UK based bystander programme, The Intervention Initiative (TII), as a key prevention strategy. However, a recent UK review () concluded that no studies have addressed implementation issues for university-based bystander programmes. Our study explored what is required for implementation of the TII in a UK university, rather than intervention effectiveness. The intervention was delivered to undergraduate students across three school cohorts: medicine, social work and sports coaching.

The study draws on pre- and post-intervention surveys to explore SV and DA knowledge, attitudes, and bystander skills. Focus groups or individual interviews with students (n=11) and staff facilitators (n=10) explored experiences of implementation, delivery and participation. Students reported positive changes across several areas and some evidence of immediate impact on behaviours, suggesting potential for wider implementation across university contexts. Barriers included professionalisation of the application of the bystander intervention, resistance to an underpinning gendered evidence base and a lack of diversity and relatability in programme materials.

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This chapter identifies the factors that contribute to the persistence of smuggling and trafficking in Southern Europe: restrictive migration policies, market forces aimed at workplace flexibility and deregulation, and organized crime. Restrictive migration policies fuel migrant smuggling and are the cause due to the rigid line between permission to enter for work and permanence in the country, and the institutionalization of irregularity. Beyond political proclamations against irregular immigration, the social vulnerability of migrants is salutary to an economic system increasingly based on ‘just in time’ production, satisfying the up-and-down requests of consumer markets. Globalization has gone hand in hand with the expansion of smuggling and trafficking. Worldwide trafficking profits in the last two decades have increased fivefold. Criminal groups have become increasingly transnational and more able to manage the recruitment, transportation and insertion of migrants into the sex and labour markets of Southern Europe.

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This chapter introduces the context of the Southern European countries, research design, and the distinction between smuggling and trafficking. Spain, Italy and Greece are destination countries for migrants, with large, informal economies and amnesties that enable irregular migrants to change their illegal status. Within these constraints, the book asks: What is the difference between smuggling and trafficking? What is their current extent in Southern Europe? What organizational methods underly smuggling and trafficking? What economic and institutional factors drive these phenomena? To answer these, the book refers to qualitative and quantitative sources on smuggling and trafficking. Smuggling concerns migrant arrivals in a new country, while trafficking can occur within the victim’s country. The relationship between migrants and smugglers ends when the foreign country is reached, while trafficked people continue to be exploited. Smugglers resort to violence to avoid interception by law enforcement, and traffickers use violence systematically to dominate their victims.

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This chapter analyses landed migrants in Spain, Italy and Greece, focusing on organizational models of smuggling and counter-migration policies. The analysis reveals the prices paid by migrants, and the routes, hubs and systems of smuggling organizations. Smugglers along western and eastern routes are organized as networks of networks and single networks. The analysis shows that smugglers cooperate with each other, without apparent conflict. Along the central route towards Libya, hierarchical smuggling groups enjoyed an oligopolistic position after the fall of Gaddafi, while convergent interests among Fezzan and north Libyan smugglers recently came to an end. The 2017 agreement between Libya and Italy led smugglers and militia on Libya’s north coast to move from smuggling to countering irregular migration thanks to financial aid from Italy and the EU. However, the main effect of migration policies has been to change and expand smuggling routes without stopping the flows towards Spain, Italy and Greece.

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Criminal Actors, Dynamics and Migration Policies
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This book provides a contemporary overview of migrant smuggling and trafficking in Southern Europe, focusing on Spain, Italy and Greece. It considers how criminal players increase such activity and investigates institutional and structural constraints to legal migration in Southern Europe.

Migrant workers satisfy the need for a cheap workforce to sustain Southern Europe’s economy, and laws to counter irregular migration alter smuggling routes and expose migrants to forms of exploitation upon reaching their destination. Revealing institutional, economic and criminal factors, the book explains the persistence of migrant smuggling and trafficking.

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This chapter analyses theoretical frameworks of migrant smuggling. The business model considers the actors to be criminal players, state and migrants, where each takes decisions according to losses and benefits. The social model claims that migrant smuggling occurs within the migrants’ diaspora among co-nationals. Would-be migrants rely on mediators and smugglers within their own migratory network of compatriots. So, trust goes far beyond a simple economic calculation as established by the business model perspective. But what happens when the migratory routes become longer and migrants have contact with several smugglers along different borders? Considering critical points related to both the business and social models, the chapter proposes a new theoretical perspective on the analytical distinction between hierarchical and network criminal organizations. Smuggler organizations are broken down into hierarchical groups, networks of networks, and single networks. The first tend to operate as mafia-like organizations and the others as business enterprises.

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This chapter deals with the different forms of migrant trafficking in Southern European countries. It starts by pointing out the great discrepancy between estimates of trafficked people and official evidence, both worldwide and in the EU, with more specific reference to Spain, Italy and Greece. It follows an analysis of sexual-exploitation trafficking, considering the main changes that have occurred in each national sex market over the last three decades. It follows the recruitment, transportation and placement of victims into the new country, and the characteristics of the criminal organizations, both national and foreign, involved in this activity. The final part addresses the analysis of trafficking and the severe exploitation of migrants in the agriculture and textile sectors to highlight how the criminal dynamics and economic needs in Spain, Italy and Greece underlie labour exploitation.

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Violence against Women (VAW) is considered a gender-specific human rights violation and is a form of discrimination that perpetuates women’s subordination and patriarchal structures throughout all levels of society. Research continues to demonstrate that the legal instruments dealing with sexual offences in Bangladesh have significant limitations and fail to meet international standards. This article identifies gaps between Bangladeshi domestic legal instruments and international legal instruments. In order to uncover and analyse the gaps, I employed thematic analysis techniques and a feminist legal theoretical lens. The findings of the study show that there are significant gaps and limitations regarding the conceptualisation of sexual violence, trial process, medical tests, variability of punishment, and protecting rights of victims in the present Bangladeshi legal instruments in comparison to the international instruments. This research provides insight into the alarming situation of sexual violence against women in Bangladesh and the problematic gaps within legal instruments in that nation, which governmental and academic authorities must consider if they are to be effective in preventing violence against women in Bangladesh.

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Post-vaginal birth protocols frequently require women and other birthing persons to undergo rectal examinations. Protocols for these examinations, which we refer to as PVREs, vary widely, however, and there is a lack of agreement within the medical community concerning whether they are needed at all. This article explores women’s experience of PVREs in light of this ambiguity which, we argue, reflects and reproduces aspects of gendered power relations that are implicated in systemic sexual violence. We show that some women experience PVREs as sexual violence, the effects of which include guilt, self-blame, shame and sexual humiliation. Given its defining characteristics, we further argue that PVREs constitute a form of obstetric violence.

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