Sociology > Political Sociology

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The quantitative monitoring of the greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation potential of interventions is central to a living-lab approach and is a methodological challenge. Valid population data on consumption patterns and mobility behaviour are often scarce, especially when the living lab is initially set up (for example, the need for baseline data before an intervention). In the context of transportation studies, a cross-sectional survey was carried out to baseline key data on GHG emissions generated by commuting before implementing an intervention. Based on this information, the GHG emissions from commuting were calculated and analysed using a linear regression model. Results show the effects of different variables, such as the share of teleworking within a working week, the regular workplace location, and attitudes towards individual mobility and former relocation behaviour. An increase in teleworking of 10 per cent based on weekly working time leads to a reduction of approximately 60 kg of GHG (8 per cent) emissions a year. Our results serve as baseline key data to analyse upcoming (temporary) interventions (for example, new coworking spaces within our living lab). Hints for rebound effects, limitations of our study and future interventions are discussed.

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This study examines the childhood care experiences of women between 20 and 30 years of age from low-income households in Santiago, Chile, by employing semi-structured interviews and qualitative analysis. At present, women understand their caregiving roles as older sisters, one which burdened them with agency practices, shaping critical reflections regarding the social organisation of care and influencing their present identity. They also articulate a desire for emotional resilience, a coping mechanism previously observed in low-income neighbourhoods in Chile. While downplaying their caregiving past, they subtly reveal the weight and regret associated with their responsibilities, influencing their reluctance to become mothers in the present. This study underscores the intricate interplay of past care experiences with present decisions, revealing the impacts of empowering discourses on women’s ideals and achievements, and the inherent fragility they carry.

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This chapter brings together all the main arguments and findings discussed throughout the key chapters, highlighting the key constituents and the nature of the ‘belonging-assemblage’ of unaccompanied young people living under the constraints of the UK asylum and immigration structures. Reiterating the key findings and arguments of previous chapters, it emphasizes the main argument of the book, which is that unaccompanied migrants’ belonging is also understood as an ‘assemblage’, taking place in-between and in the middle and is always in the making; therefore, it is nomadic and rhizomatic in its nature and exists in its potentiality and actuality.

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This chapter introduces the main conceptual and theoretical resources of the book after giving an in-depth, critical appraisal of the existing conceptual literature on belonging, exposing its limitations in understanding the complexity and multiplicity of the notion of belonging in general and the belonging of unaccompanied migrants more specifically. It discusses in detail Deleuze and Guattari’s theoretical terms of assemblage, molar, molecular and nomadic lines alongside others and shows their value in developing the concept of belonging and in our understanding of the belonging of unaccompanied young people in precarious positions. This chapter argues the case for a new conceptual understanding of belonging that is capable of capturing the shifts, multiplicities, complexities and paradoxes in experiencing and conceiving belonging in migration in relation to those in precarious positions.

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This chapter sets the scene for and gives context to an in-depth, theoretically informed study of the belonging of unaccompanied young people seeking asylum in the UK. It begins by introducing the story of displacement, migration and belonging of one of the participants. The participant’s accounts of the challenges of migrating to and resettling in the UK provide an anchor into which the analysis of the main findings are woven in the coming chapters.

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Unaccompanied children and adolescents seeking protection in the UK are among the most vulnerable migrant groups, and often find themselves in a hostile policy environment after enduring traumatic journeys.

This book offers an in-depth analysis of the lived experiences of belonging, and the politics and policies of migration. Focusing on unaccompanied young migrants, it investigates the conditions and nature of belonging in the face of the uncertainty, ambiguity and violence of the UK asylum system.

Drawing on interviews and the Deleuzo-Guattarian concepts of assemblage, the book provides an empirical and theoretical examination of the belonging of unaccompanied young migrants seeking protection in the UK. Through compelling accounts, the author portrays the complex and paradoxical nature of belonging under precarious conditions, shedding light on the tenacity and fragility of belonging for unaccompanied young migrants.

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This is the first chapter that presents an analysis of the empirical work undertaken to understand the experiences of unaccompanied migrants. The first section presents a data analysis of the unaccompanied migrants’ experiences of their journeys to the UK, which often involve risks to their lives and prolonged stays in transit countries, as well as them facing calamitous situations and exploitation. An analysis of the data related to unaccompanied migrants’ experiences within the asylum system and its related procedures is then introduced. Alsoresented are the data on the effects of these on unaccompanied young people’s everyday lives and the configurations of their belonging in the UK through the adoption of Deleuze and Guattari’s ‘molar line’ and ‘affect’ as the main conceptual tools, alongside the notion of ‘violence’. The key argument of this chapter is that the border/immigration and asylum policies and practices, and the understanding of belonging within these structures and apparatuses, are all understood as molar forces that produce harm and violence while functioning to remove, disrupt and erase the belonging of unaccompanied young people.

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This chapter explores the local practices and ‘micropolitics’ of the adults who support, care for and protect unaccompanied migrants. It examines how the actions, activities and attitudes of these adults contribute to the configurations of the belonging of unaccompanied young people. To do so, it moves on to spaces of care, sports clubs and youth clubs, bringing to the fore different roles taken on by or attributed to adults whose performances and counter-politics surface to play a key role in constituting the belonging of young people. Deleuze and Guattari’s main concepts of ‘molecular lines’ and ‘smooth spaces’ resource this chapter particularly. The main argument and conclusion of this chapter are that while the belonging of unaccompanied migrants is constrained, unsettled and rejected by molar forces, it is simultaneously encouraged and made possible by molecular flows, movements and subjects and ‘smooth spaces’.

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This chapter draws on the data on the nature and functioning of belonging of unaccompanied young people by following a series of moments, relationships, sites and passages of time. It brings in the analysis of the data from all chapters. Through the focus on the notions of ‘nomadic lines’ and ‘rhizome’ and by following Braidotti’s ideas of subjectivity as nomadic, it further maps several important components and key features of unaccompanied young people’s belonging. A key argument of this chapter – and this book overall – is that belonging needs to be viewed as nomadic/rhizomatic assemblages. It utilizes this understanding in this chapter as a way of foregrounding the active subjectivities of unaccompanied young people who are often portrayed negatively within the media and dominant public and political discourses. Another important argument made here is that belonging exists in its potentiality and actuality, which are both viewed as real, challenging the dualism of ‘belonging/unbelonging’ or ‘personal/political’ belonging, and introducing a new angle on the absences and inconsistencies of belonging.

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This chapter gives the background to the research context. It starts with a section containing an analysis of the immigration, border and asylum policy frameworks and the migration governance that shapes the lives of unaccompanied young people. This section will also involve looking at some of the key challenges these policies pose for unaccompanied young people. The next section provides an overview of the empirical literature on unaccompanied young people seeking asylum in the UK and belonging, revealing some of the current research gaps. Following the discussion of this literature, the next and last sections discuss some of the key details around the research design and methodology.

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