Goal 16: Peace, Justice and Strong Institutions

SDG 16 aims to promote peaceful and inclusive societies for sustainable development, provide access to justice for all and build effective, accountable and inclusive institutions at all levels. Browse books and journal articles relating to this SDG below and find out more on the UN Sustainable Development Goals website.
 

Goal 16: Peace, Justice and Strong Institutions

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Studies show that the number of illegal wolf theriocides in Poland is significant and increasing. According to research, between 2002 and 2020 there were 91 cases of killings. On the other hand, between 1922 and 2022 we were able to identify only nine rulings related to the wolf crimes. It should be noticed that this situation is not justified by the official state approach to killing wolves in Poland. These animals have been a strictly protected species ever since 1998 and since then there has been no issuing of state licences for general population reduction. The chapter focuses on the social and legal factors influencing the effectiveness of combating the illegal killing of wolves in Poland. Our main argument is that these factors are, at the same time, the greatest problems for law enforcement authorities to effectively counteract the illegal wolf theriocides, especially when it comes to not only anthropogenic but also financial approaches in criminal law.

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This concluding chapter reinforces and build on a key message of the book: the relevance and value of theory to the practice of social policy as well as to the study of it. To do this it explores how theory can be used to understand and analyse the recent COVID-19 pandemic. It then looks at the relationship between theory and the pursuit of social change. The chapter concludes with an exploration of the theorisation of hope and its place within social policy analysis and work.

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This chapter contributes to the debate on CITES with a reflection on its adaptability to the new vision adopted by its States Parties, which calls to ‘[c]onserve biodiversity and contribute to its sustainable use by ensuring that no species of wild fauna or flora is or remains subject to unsustainable exploitation through international trade’. Attempts to update CITES have been the source of interesting reforms in Spain, including the restructuring of CITES authorities and the adoption of a national plan that developed the EU Action Plan on Wildlife Trafficking. CITES implementation and case law in Spain shows that it is necessary to adapt to the new challenges posed by wildlife trafficking in the digital world. Thus, the introduction of digital permits and means of traceability will facilitate law enforcement and international cooperation. Spain has also adopted an exemplary practice regarding the destination of seized live animals, based on recovery and reintroduction that goes beyond CITES recommendations.

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This chapter explores the concept of citizenship, which has been central to key social policy debates. It also introduces two concepts related to citizenship: community and human rights. As citizenship is closely connected to membership of a community, this chapter also explores the concept of community itself as well as the meaning of membership. The chapter also discusses citizenship rights, together with human rights and the notion of citizenship as an ideal.

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This book provides an introduction to the key theories and concepts that are important in the study of social policy. It fleshes these out with insight from contemporary events, drawing on examples to show how theory matters and helps us in understanding everyday life. This updated second edition includes a new chapter, which explores disability, environmentalism and sexuality.

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The final chapter sums up the findings of the book. The contributions illustrate that the ways in which the conventions are implemented and enforced vary between countries. For example, in Spain animals who are confiscated as a measure to enforce CITES are not euthanized, as they are in Norway. Moreover, the protection that is accorded wildlife in Europe appears to be stronger in countries that are members of the European Union, through the Habitat Directive, than the protection that is offered through the Bern Convention, since the Habitats Directive has a more powerful enforcement apparatus. While all the time more research confirms the capacities of non-human animals, the value that is accorded to individual non-human animals and their interests still lags significantly behind. Although there are provisions in regards to animal welfare in CITES, and although wildlife is accorded intrinsic value in the Bern Convention’s preamble, the basis of these conventions is in both cases anthropocentric.

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Italy is one of the European countries with the richest biodiversity, but its precious heritage is at risk, with wildlife crimes, and particularly poaching in its various manifestations, being one of the main threats to the survival of rare or endangered species. This review chapter will focus, in particular, on bird poaching as a case study, presenting its trends, phenomenology and characteristics, the related wildlife markets in Italy, and their impact on wildlife conservation. It also offers a brief overview of the relevant national legislation and its implementation, suggesting how the system currently in place is not always adequate to confront a diffuse and socially embedded phenomenon, the social and environmental harms of which are too often not yet fully recognized.

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This book addresses one of today’s most urgent issues: the loss of wildlife and habitat, which together constitute an ecological crisis. Combining studies from different disciplines such as law, political science and criminology with a focus on animal rights, the chapters explore the successes and failures of the international wildlife conservation and trade treaties, CITES and the BERN Convention.

While these conventions have played a crucial role in protecting endangered species from trade and in the rewilding of European large carnivores, the case studies in this book demonstrate huge variations in their implementation and enforcement across Europe. In conclusion, the book advocates for a non-anthropocentric policy approach to strengthen wildlife conservation in Europe.

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This chapter introduces some of the main theoretical perspectives that have provided critiques of dominant political ideologies as well as being critical analytical tools. It covers the main tenets of Marxist, feminist and anti-racist philosophies, which take social class, gender and ‘race’ respectively as their central analytical categories, and it explores theories that have sought to connect these approaches. It pays particular attention to what these philosophies say about the welfare state and their impact on social policy thinking.

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This chapter introduces three further theoretical perspectives that provide critiques of dominant political ideologies and analytical tools for change in social policy. It covers the main tenets of disability theory, sexuality studies and finally environmentalism. It pays particular attention to what the three theories say about the welfare state and their impact on social policy thinking.

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