Goal 3: Good Health and Well-being

SDG 3 aims to ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages. Browse books and journal articles relating to this SDG below and find out more on the UN Sustainable Development Goals website.
 

Goal 3: Good Health and Well-being

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Author: Becky Tunstall

‘Shielding’ and ‘isolating’ were the strictest forms of staying home. Four million people who were particularly vulnerable were asked to ‘shield’ at home for months, initially to protect the health service and latterly for their own protection. At least 12 million who had COVID-19 or suspected COVID-19 were required by law to ‘isolate’ at home to protect others (at least those outside their household). A quarter of shielders and isolators lived alone and became a new category of dependent people. Those who lived with others had to try to avoid infection at home. People on lower incomes were more likely to have to shield or isolate, but they and ethnic minorities were less likely to have a spare bedroom to do so properly, which must have contributed to inequalities in infection and death. Shielding and isolating were only partially successful.

In 2020/21, there were 28 million or 18% fewer hospital appointments than before the pandemic. Millions were providing healthcare for household members with COVID, while trying to avoid infection, or conditions that would normally be treated in hospital. Some 34% more people than usual died at home. This placed extra responsibility on sick and vulnerable people, their households and homes.

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Author: Becky Tunstall

This chapter introduces the book. Everyone on earth has views about the COVID-19 pandemic. It was unprecedented and multi-dimensional. It has been seen as a test of resilience, as casting a spotlight on inequality, and potentially as a turning point for policy and society.

The most important policy used to control COVID-19 infection in the UK – and all around the world – was ‘lockdown’, requiring large proportions of the population to stay home. This resulted in mass changes in the way in which homes were used, experienced and paid for, with their own knock-on inequalities. When the pandemic hit, many felt that the UK housing system was in ‘crisis’, but suddenly the unsatisfactory system became the official national refuge. The pandemic provided an unfortunate natural opportunity to learn about the UK housing system under unique pressure: its flaws, its inequalities and its resilience. This book uses a wide range of special surveys carried out in 2020–21, including studies of people aged 19, 31, 50, 62 and 74 in 2020 when the pandemic began, to analyse its impact on people, households, homes and the housing system in the UK.

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Authors: Yvon Dandurand and Jon Heidt

This concluding chapter discusses where sports fit in overall crime prevention strategies and whether further investments in sport-based crime prevention programmes are justified. Popular interest in such programmes and limited empirical evidence on their impacts underscore the need for further research. Although useful knowledge exists about what can increase the positive development aspects of a sport-based programme, it remains very difficult to know for whom sport-based crime prevention interventions are most effective, and what they should consist of so as to improve their effectiveness in preventing crime or violence. There is a critical need for substantial and rigorous evaluations. Unfortunately, crime prevention programmes are rarely evaluated, and many existing evaluations are methodologically weak and overly simplistic in their theorizing about the causes of youth crime. Future research should refine existing categorizations of sport-based programmes and attempt to quantify the specific outcomes attributable to sport participation among other related crime prevention outcomes observed in multi-component sport-based programmes.

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Authors: Yvon Dandurand and Jon Heidt

This chapter identifies some emerging good practices in youth crime prevention through sports and addresses the question of what communities and crime prevention proponents can do to maximize their investments in sport-based programmes from the points of view of peace, public safety, and crime prevention. A consensus is emerging around programme practices and characteristics that are most likely to yield substantial positive youth development outcomes. Some of these include clearly articulating crime prevention objectives and programme rationale, considering the local context, interests, and cultural background of the young people they seek to influence, being responsive to the needs of participants, and accounting for gender and cultural factors that might relate to the programme. Key factors associated with sustaining interventions over time and ensuring that programme delivery is well planned are also reviewed. The chapter concludes by discussing the importance of: interagency cooperation and community partnerships; engagement of parents, relatives, and other significant adults; encouragement of positive peer interactions; and finding the right coaches and facilitators to promote youth development.

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Author: Becky Tunstall

The COVID-19 pandemic shut down or disrupted large parts of the UK labour market. By May 2020, almost half of the population had lost at least 10% of their income.

Most people turned first to their savings and to friends and family, but in March 2020, the UK government invented new jobs support, benefits and housing policies, which were relatively generous compared to the pandemic policy in other countries and to the normal welfare safety net. A total of 12 million UK people were ‘furloughed’ on 80% of pay for some months at a cost of £70 billion. Universal Credit claims increased by 1.1 million or 39%. At least two million mortgagees took a payment ‘holiday’. A moratorium meant an almost complete halt to legal evictions and repossessions until at least 2022. Overall, median income fell and partly as a result, relative poverty reduced slightly. However, some people experienced stable incomes, reduced costs and increased savings, while others lost income, spent savings and borrowed. Three million people lost income but were ineligible for schemes. Job and income loss affected renters and outright owners more. Mortgagees and private renters experienced worsening affordability and increasing arrears. Renters had no ‘holiday’ scheme. There will be lingering and unequal effects on savings, debts, housing security and ability to buy.

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Author: Becky Tunstall

UK policy sought to minimise the impact of the pandemic on the housing market, which was viewed as essential to sustaining economic growth. Home construction and marketing paused only for seven weeks, construction workers received £15.9 billion of pandemic support and at least £4.7 billion was spent on a cut in stamp duty (transactions tax). While completions, transactions and lending reduced in 2020, they soon recovered. In contrast to expectations, house price growth continued at 11% a year throughout 2020 and 2021. This contributed to inequalities in access to home ownership and to wealth.

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Authors: Yvon Dandurand and Jon Heidt

This chapter provides an overview of the connections between sport-based programming and crime prevention. Many sport-based youth programmes purport to prevent youth crime or youth involvement in gangs. Sports stand with several other activities (for example, education, mentoring, religious teaching, and volunteering) that may spur positive social development among children and youth. Crime prevention strategies have tried to build on the popularity and benefits of sports activities to promote youth development and to influence risk and resiliency factors associated with criminal involvement. Various sport-based crime prevention programmes have been implemented but very few of them have been subjected to a rigorous evaluation. When research has been done, the relationship between these programmes and desistance from crime was difficult to disentangle. In addition to identifying the problem to be addressed, this chapter questions how much is known about the phenomenon because of lack of theorizing and rigorous research in the area.

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Author: Becky Tunstall

The UK had three waves of COVID-19 infections and deaths between January 2020 and the start of 2022. ‘Age-standardised’ death rates were among the highest in Europe, although lower in the second and third waves. By January 2022, there had been 390 million recorded tests, about 20 million infections and 620,000 hospital admissions, and 52 million had had at least one dose of the vaccine. A total of 148,000 people had died within 28 days of a positive COVID-19 test. The increase in deaths was enough to reduce life expectancy at birth. Deaths were very unevenly distributed by age, gender, pre-existing health conditions, disability, region, neighbourhood deprivation, ethnicity and occupation.

On 23 March 2020, UK government required most of the population to stay home, and measures were among the most stringent in Europe. However, locking down a week earlier would have saved an estimated 20,000 lives and might have allowed less stringency. Later lockdowns were also delayed. A House of Commons report in September 2021 described early policy as ‘one of the most important public health failures the United Kingdom has ever experienced’.

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Author: Becky Tunstall

Most people in the UK obeyed most of the restrictions on leaving home and mixing with other households most of the time. In the first national lockdown, most were at home for 23 or more hours a day and 41% were entirely at home for five or more days a week.

The UK birth rate fell, international migration fell and the death rate increased, meaning the total population reduced, against previous trends. The trend of growth in the number of households paused, as people moved in with others to reduce costs, loneliness and infection risk.

Home occupancy, overcrowding and time at home increased. People spent more time on sleep, childcare and leisure, and less on work outside the home, housework, personal care and travel. About 40% of employed adults worked from home. Experienced varied widely. There were difficulties in fitting multiple people and activities into congested home space, and in being home alone. Homes acted as refuges from the virus, but had to be defended from it. For some, the meaning of home was enhanced. Others felt home was no longer quiet, restorative or private. For many, home became a ‘prison’.

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Authors: Yvon Dandurand and Jon Heidt

This chapter focuses on the role of coaches and the impact of coaching practices on youth development. Research thus far emphasizes the crucial importance of coaches and facilitators in fostering positive youth development outcomes. There is also currently great interest as to how coaches and programme facilitators might improve their current practices. While it seems obvious that coaches and other programme facilitators have unique opportunities to influence youth, there is not yet a consensus on exactly what differentiates effective from ineffective coaches. Factors such as leadership, expertise, motivation, education, and experience are often cited, together with an ability to form meaningful relationships with youth. Another suggestion is that coaches and facilitators could encourage positive youth development by incorporating teaching life skills in sports programmes. Unfortunately, many current coaches do not have the knowledge, skills, or training to do this. There follows a discussion of effective coaching strategies and leadership style to encouraging development. The chapter concludes with a discussion of the key findings of recent research on the role and practices of sport coaches, facilitators, and volunteers involved in sport-based positive development programmes.

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