SDG 5 aims to achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls. Browse books and journal articles relating to this SDG below and find out more on the UN Sustainable Development Goals website.
Goal 5: Gender Equality
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On a trip to Kenya to participate in a writing workshop, the author, an HIV-positive gay man in his fifties from Montana, finds himself compelled to face the precarious lives of other long-term survivors, attending a support group in the slum of Korogocho, and finding a level of intimacy that leads to a realisation and expression of the uncanny similarity in the different lives of women and men living with the global virus.
Three case studies from Mumbai illustrate the effects of immunosenescence on long-term HIV survivors. Many of the medical, psychological and social characteristics of ageing characterise the condition of positive women and men in their thirties and forties, demonstrating the way age is in many ways a social construct, but also showing how long-term survival depends on social support networks, like the community-based organisation Sanjeevani, which promotes intimacy and activism.
Living as an older lesbian in a society that stigmatises marginalised communities is challenging. Patriarchy significantly impacts the experience of gender and sexually diverse populations in Bangladesh, especially for lesbians. This chapter explores the experiences of an older lesbian that speak to the intersectional oppression with which she lives. Bangladeshi society is significantly patriarchal, and women continue to experience that patriarchy as oppression. Being an older lesbian brings additional vulnerability, because older people often lack adequate financial support and health and social care. Her experience as an older lesbian is used as a lens to understand what it is like to live an identity that sits outside enforced cultural norms and to get access to health, social care and social relationships. This chapter further investigates the impacts of religion in her life and the implications of mental health support for people with HIV, based on her experiences.
This volume, third in a series of five on sexuality in later life, brings together the experiences of women, gay men, trans women and hijra from around the world as they describe what it means to live with HIV and navigate the often fraught areas of sex, sexuality, intimacy and relationships in later life. New drug treatments have transformed the lives and expectations of people living with HIV. In this book we hear from people living in Aotearoa New Zealand, Bangladesh, India, Kenya, Switzerland, Ukraine and the United Kingdom who are not only living with HIV but also facing stigma imposed on them by others. Too often they have learned to stigmatise themselves. Since no single approach or way of writing can capture the richly diverse experiences of people in later life living with HIV, the book includes a variety of empirical research as well as personal accounts, poetry and other forms of writing from an array of perspectives and academic disciplines. As always with HIV, we find that poverty challenges our notions about the length, expectations and quality of life.
A key issue is whether certain exclusive student clubs can be reformed and be trusted to maintain that reform. The historical evidence across societies raises scepticism as the traditional ones often cannot be relied on to carry out any proposed reforms over time. This remains a grave matter related to risk that can be fatal and to gender-based violence that is serious in its consequences, and both forms can be defined as criminal. This leads to the issue of sanctioning or even abolishing such institutions that enthusiastically seek to ‘go over the edge’. There is also strong evidence of a defensive wall of denial in some self-congratulatory universities, which allowed offenders to get away with forms of abuse over long periods. Of the essence here is accountability, with universities making persistent efforts to provide a safe environment for all students but particularly for women and where such student societies are tightly regulated with sanctions including permanent banishment. For the university cannot allow serious high risk and interpersonal criminal conduct within its domain.
Timely and urgent, this book examines the culture and governance of colleges and universities regarding both excess in elite student societies and sexual violence, particularly against female students. Taking into account the deaths, serious injuries and grave sexual abuse taking place among student populations, the book takes a criminological and sociological perspective on the institutions, offenders and victims involved.
With high profile court cases and media responses driving demand for reform, the author considers institutional reactions and concludes with recommendations to improve crime prevention, accountability and the support for survivors.
This book examines crime, deviance, injustice, prejudice, discrimination and victimization in educational institutions but largely in colleges and universities. It details two, at times, related elements: ‘excesses’ in mostly elite male student societies; and sexual abuse particularly against female students. Importantly, the focus on ‘deviance and crime on campus’ has to be placed in the context of serious institutional failure; and that, in turn, is amplified by a wider system failure regarding policing, prosecutions and the judiciary. Indeed, underpinning that dual institutional failure are deeply rooted historical and societal assumptions leading to the tolerance of elite student excess as well as engrained societal prejudices regarding sexual violence in general but held against women in particular.
A pivotal issue is the role of the college-university in the regulation of student societies through private justice and in the manner they regulate and enforce internal rules, regulations and laws. For who is accountable? The focus in this chapter is especially on US fraternities, drawing on an insightful and disturbing article by Flanagan (2014). The US has around 2,600 accredited colleges and universities and if they receive federal aid then they have to comply with federal guidelines. But with so many institutions, public and private, and within 50 states – each having its own legislation and with varying compliance cultures – this means that compliance with federal guidelines is patchy if not resistant. Moreover, US fraternities typically have a complex institutional structure, with national organizations possessing considerable financial means, legal support and political influence. This structure, with an assertive and well-resourced Political Action Committee (PAC) at the national level, is not true in the other societies dealt with here.
In recent years there has been a shift to criminal prosecutions, with convictions as well as civil cases sometimes followed by the resignations of senior officials. Fostering this tougher stance was that sexual abuse on the American campus had become a national issue by 2016, with ‘an endless stream’ of disturbing scandals that could no longer be dismissed as incidents. Institutions had failed to investigate, had let down victims and had granted perpetrators immunity. Fostering that move was a string of abuse cases at Wesleyan indicating the unwillingness of some fraternities to change, and the one at Baylor conveying how an ostensibly grave case could nevertheless elicit weak sanctioning. And then there were deeply disturbing abuse cases related to college sports, with some leading to high public concern including the widely publicized one involving Chanel Miller at Stanford. Behind much of this were elements of cynicism, hypocrisy and cowardice.
Elite student societies – the corps in the Netherlands and Belgium, fraternity in the US and club in the UK – were predominantly male, exclusive and indulged in various forms of excess, often cloaked by secrecy. The more elite societies tended to have severe initiations, at times leading to injury or even death. Typically, the societies went into defence mode and the colleges/universities reacted poorly or even malignly.