Integrated literacy instruction as anti-racist pedagogy in schools of social work

Authors: Social Work Writing Collaborative, Miriam Jaffe, Natalie Bembry1, and Widian Nicola2
View author details View Less
  • 1 Rutgers University, USA
  • | 2 Seton Hall University, USA
Full Access
Get eTOC alerts
Rights and permissions Cite this article

Disproportionate access to literacy skills keeps many students from achieving leadership roles. Using an autoethnographic narrative as evidence, we call for an anti-racist pedagogy in accordance with the social work code of ethics – one that changes how we understand literacy in graduate programmes. We suggest that the implementation of Writing Across the Curriculum via enhanced teacher training in grammar is a necessary outcome of cultural humility at the institutional level. We find that literacy is a social justice issue within our profession and educational context. We hope to inspire more research on how standards and educational policies could meet our proposed goals for educational equality.

Abstract

Disproportionate access to literacy skills keeps many students from achieving leadership roles. Using an autoethnographic narrative as evidence, we call for an anti-racist pedagogy in accordance with the social work code of ethics – one that changes how we understand literacy in graduate programmes. We suggest that the implementation of Writing Across the Curriculum via enhanced teacher training in grammar is a necessary outcome of cultural humility at the institutional level. We find that literacy is a social justice issue within our profession and educational context. We hope to inspire more research on how standards and educational policies could meet our proposed goals for educational equality.

Introduction

Literacy skills underscore student achievement and opportunity (Lazar et al, 2012), especially in graduate programmes, where reading and writing are the central means for knowledge assimilation and assessment (Ondrusek, 2012). Historically, Black and Latino students in the US have placed below basic reading and writing levels (NAEP, 2017), and recent scholarship has explored how white supremacy and educational social injustice have created lifelong educational disparities (Howard, 2019). At the master’s and doctoral levels, research on opportunity gaps and educational debts among students of colour is sparse, despite the marked increase in Black and Latino graduate students over the past ten years (NCES, 2019). The rising number of international students also diversifies the graduate population (Fischer, 2012). Social work educators, intent on addressing social injustice as a core competency, have expressed concern that disproportionate access to literacy skills affects graduate students of colour (Rai and Lillis, 2013). Therefore, we write to suggest integrated literacy instruction in the name of social justice-oriented anti-racist pedagogy, which could help schools of social work set a precedent for fair practices across the university.

Anti-racist pedagogy uses critical-analytical skills to teach about the institutionalisation of race and racism, as well as the creation, maintenance and justification of inequality in US society (Kishimoto, 2016). Anti-racist pedagogy requires individuals to investigate the institutional racism within education in order to build racial justice and equity in school policies (Grosland, 2013). Accurso and Mizell (2020: 8) suggested that anti-racist pedagogy should focus on ‘human relations with race in mind’, which encourages the practice of cultural humility: individual and institutional self-reflection on issues of race. In schools of social work, we have an ethical responsibility to engage in cultural humility as we design curriculum and teach, yet we fall short of our core accreditation educational practices and standards (CSWE, 2015), which compel social workers to ‘engage difference and diversity in practice’ and ‘advance human rights and social justice’. Since literacy disparities are a social justice issue, we must hold our educational systems responsible for literacy disparities and find ways to integrate more reading and writing instruction into our classrooms.

Anti-racist pedagogies relating to literacy have focused on decolonisation in the classroom (St. Clair and Kishimoto, 2010), linguistic justice (Baker-Bell, 2020) and inclusivity (Banks, 2019) as ways to balance white privilege. White privilege associated with graduate school literacy requirements is evident in the cultural bias of graduate admission exams (Mupinga and Mupinga, 2005), the subjectivity of admission requirements and retention rates (Baumgartner and Johnson-Bailey, 2010). While summer bridge programmes might attempt to prepare students for socialisation in reading and writing (McCoy and Winkle-Wagner, 2015), students of colour receive unequal socialisation in graduate programmes. Reading and writing skills are key to graduate student identity (McCoy and Winkle-Wagner, 2015); yet, even in disciplines that address the under-representation of marginalised peoples in graduate education and attract diverse constituents, ‘opportunities to collaborate with faculty on research, co-authoring, developing research grants, and help applying for fellowships and publishing’ are less present for students of colour (Brunsma et al, 2017: 1). The stakes for writing opportunities are higher in social work programmes, which often have a higher ratio of minority and first-generation students, as well as those of low socio-economic status, than the rest of the university (Cronley and Kilgore, 2016). These disparities exist because we have been approaching writing with personal and institutional biases.

In this article, we present an autoethnographic narrative from the perspective of a social work professor who is Palestinian and has immigrated to the US without English proficiency. In considering the role of literacy training in social work education, the narrative is framed by a literature review about literacy training practices in social work education written by a Jewish professor of writing who is also a social worker, as well as a discussion of cultural humility written by a Black social work professor who specialises in anti-racism and cultural humility training. In building many bridges across each other’s experiences, we discuss how literacy skills in social work education can enhance a student’s ability to communicate effectively with a variety of audiences, identify and deconstruct complex patterns, determine inferences, and provide a generous reinterpretation and application of the text – necessary skills in social work practice. We also found that the ability to narrativise in pursuit of social justice is a necessary tool in advocacy efforts to dismantle oppressive systems, of which students of colour are disproportionately affected.

Of course, integrated literacy instruction will help all students hone their writing skills, especially taking into consideration class oppression in the US, and to that end, universities are increasingly developing interdisciplinary graduate writing programmes and more opportunities for writing assistance. However, the systemic failure of this approach is that literacy initiatives in the name of all have come to the fore only in the instance when educators realise that white students or foreign students could benefit. These initiatives do not recognise educational injustices related to racial contexts within the US. Many US universities have specialised programming for international students. Yet, we argue that social workers should be at the forefront of fostering literacy instruction as a social justice initiative for people who have experienced opportunity gaps because of race-related issues of class, calling for programming that helps to level the playing field through anti-racist pedagogy at the institutional level – not just at the individual level, as per ‘liberatory consciousness’ (Love, 2000).

We seek an initiative that specifically recognises principles of linguistic justice (Baker-Bell, 2020) – one that deeply considers the need for people in professional education contexts to understand their narrative and diglossic choices, albeit without the high–low hegemony implied in diglossia. While all people should be better valued for the richness of linguistic capital that they contribute, and while there should be no hierarchy within English and linguistic varieties, all English speakers should be given the opportunity to learn varieties of academic and compositional forms from an applied linguistics perspective, so that they may decide, with informed intention, how they want to communicate to their given audiences. Our focus on a linguistic approach to English is not meant to further systematise students, but intended to offer an equality of choices among glosses and styles.

Literature review

In graduate fields of care, educators are obligated by their code of ethics ‘to ensure that student writing skills are current, appropriate, and integrated into their role as future practitioners’ (Gordon-Handler et al, 2019: 201). On point, the Council of Social Work Education (CSWE, 2015) features ‘writing’ in its very first competency. Social work educators have been invested in delivering on these expectations specifically in relation to writing because they well understand the spectrum of writing skills in their student and practitioner populations (Jaffe, 2021). To meet literacy and communication goals, several social work programmes have implemented a popular approach from the 1970s called Writing Across the Curriculum (WAC). The WAC movement resolves that writing serves not only for communication, but also for the purpose of learning and critical thinking (McLeod and Maimon, 2000). Florida Atlantic University (FAU) developed a successful introductory WAC course, which undergraduate social work students had to pass before entering the practice course (Horton and Diaz, 2011); as a result of the FAU experiment, ‘students reported that WAC strategies substantially improved their inabilities to write in the discipline and learn course content’ (Luna et al, 2014: 390). One WAC approach at Lehman College CUNY centred upon gerontology banked on WAC’s emphasis on language in discipline-specific learning (Kolb, 2013), while another Lehman College WAC initiative based in field education highlighted the idea of ‘faculty development’ (Kahn and Holody, 2012: 65). Weiner (2012) employed WAC towards reflective writing and critical thinking, and Thomas et al (2016) focused their efforts on agency writing, which is important because Rai and Lillis (2013) found that academic literacies did not align with expectations across fields of practice.

While sparse WAC endeavours have not solved the problems cited by Rai and Lillis (2013) and Kokaliari et al (2012), including grammatical, mechanical and syntactical errors (which present foundational limits to the extent of one’s critical thinking abilities), they have certainly highlighted the need for broader faculty development in applied linguistics. In their study, Kokaliari et al (2012: 571) found that with a half-day training in WAC, ‘not all faculty members were following the APA [American Psychological Association] guidelines’. Therefore, across disciplines, faculty development must rely on ‘embedded’ and ongoing intervention (Zemliansky and Berry, 2017: 307). When WAC is employed consistently over time, faculty members’ ability to recognise and also carry out their expectations is key to student success (Moor et al, 2012). Jani and Mellinger (2015: 138) wrote that ‘the locus of responsibility in the educational process for the development of student writing’ is contested, thereby creating barely any culture of writing instruction at all. Only when faculty members are able to convey and carry out a standard for writing instruction across individual faculty audiences were students able to gain writing skills (Jani and Melinger, 2015), which shows that faculty members themselves could use more professional development that integrates writing skills to advance their own leadership potential.

Social work research about graduates’ employment experiences has stipulated that employers look for ‘high standards of literacy in report writing’ for advanced-status leadership (Sharpe et al, 2011: 100). The white privilege of access to standard English learning from early childhood through graduate school affects not only admissions, but also employment, issues of compromised credentialism and, moreover, social justice: ‘There would be a lack of congruence between values and practice if the students selected for training excluded those who … had not experienced a traditional educational foundation yet demonstrated clear potential for professional training’ (Nelson and Weatherald, 2014: 107). We argue that there would be even more congruence if graduate students of colour were better socialised into writing practices from a linguistic perspective that grounds grammars in history and science, and we agree that teacher training is key to this endeavour.

Two studies in particular helped us to frame important components of our thinking. In Jacobs’ (2015: 134) model for integrating writing into the disciplines, teaching is ‘about promoting general language proficiency, enabling students to understand English as a medium of instruction and using grammatically correct English’. This characterisation of writing instruction is important because it does not assume that standard English is dominant or primary outside of the specific disciplinary context, which makes critical linguistic awareness part of the reason for making one writing choice over another. In other words, continued English instruction available to all graduate students eliminates the shame of the deficit model associated with remedial instruction. Gherardi et al (2020: 6) have grounded this point in a BSW [Bachelor of Social Work] writing workshop; they wrote that faculty perceptions of students with weak writing skills leads to racist and classist micro-aggressions, and argued for writing instruction as a social justice imperative – one that ‘sought to build social literacy through discussions around the socio-cultural and political context of writing’. This sociocultural and political discussion of writing is key to a culturally relevant understanding of grammars as relational and not hierarchical. These discussions should highlight that the concept of code switching – optimising the comfort of others by switching behaviours to meet normative circumstances – ‘may reinforce White professional standards and generate social and psychological costs’ for students and professionals (McCluney et al, 2021).

In order to address this kind of inequity, social work calls upon cultural competence. The definition of cultural competence has varied over the years, thus leading to several challenges with the concept and in the field. The National Association of Social Workers (NASW, 2015: 13) defined cultural competence as the ‘process by which individuals and systems respond respectfully and effectively to people of all cultures, languages, classes, races, ethnic backgrounds, religions, spiritual traditions, immigration status, and other diversity factors’ through the recognition, affirmation and valuing of the individual, family and community. The definition has focused on the necessary knowledge and skill, not what is necessary for the social work educator to achieve it. Yet, cultural humility bridges the gap between knowledge and skill. Both cultural humility and cultural competence seek to address inequalities through the development of cultural awareness and knowledge. Tervalon and Murray-Garcia (1998: 117) stated that cultural humility ‘incorporates a lifelong commitment to self-evaluation and self-critique to redressing the power imbalances’. Fisher-Borne et al (2015) further elaborated that cultural humility consists of three core elements: lifelong learning and critical reflection; individual and institutional accountability; and the mitigation of power imbalances. One can view individual accountability as critical self-reflection and lifelong learning. Critical self-reflection requires one to engage in lifelong learning; however, the individual must embark on a critical inspection of their political, familial, educational and religious values and beliefs, as well as the impact they have on their view and interaction with others. Foronda et al (2016: 211) posited that to increase reflection and lifelong learning, there are six key attributes that one needs to acquire: ‘openness, self-awareness, egoless, supportive interactions, and self-reflection and critique’. Using these key attributes, one will be able to challenge the power imbalance and shift from being an expert to a learner (Foronda et al, 2016).

The key to an integrated writing programme grounded in cultural humility involves professional development in grammars and composition as relational forms. For example, in teaching subject–verb agreement within academic English, educators could be conscious that the present tense verb ‘to be’ exists as a norm of academic English but often does not appear in other language forms, including Hebrew and some forms of Black English:

  • Academic English: ‘She is good’.

  • Another language, like Hebrew: ‘She good’.

  • Regional English: ‘She good’.

This linguistically based lesson shows that there are some languages that use the copula while others do not; one could make the decision as to whether or not to use a present tense verb ‘to be’ if supported by more depth of knowledge about how languages work to convey information. Social work educators may shy away from linguistics or claim grammar as the responsibility of other academic departments, but self-reflective explorations of one’s own literacy skills allow for more informed discussions about the politicisation of language within the academy – where one is taught about it as right or wrong, high or low. Social work educators need to explore their biases and assumptions about language to understand what they do not know. In the process, literacy skills strengthen because, in this case, the discussion of parts of speech is based in linguistics rather than value judgement.

Individual accountability and institutional accountability must work together for this kind of pedagogy to take effect (Foronda et al, 2016). Social work programmes can start by examining the policies or practices that are in place that advance, promote or continue systemic racist pedagogy (Fisher-Borne et al, 2015), like discussion of writing terminology on evaluation rubrics, and weighing assignments that privilege storytelling at the same level as APA-style research. If schools of social work only use the liberatory consciousness model (Love, 2000), which focuses on individual change to disrupt oppressive systems, then educators may miss the opportunity to act more broadly on the institutional level in ways that give students access to literacy based in language science, rather than literacy based in judgement. Fundamental to social work is a duty to respond meaningfully and effectively to the social issues and structures that hinder human flourishing, particularly the racist structures that pose a danger to vulnerable populations. To achieve this goal, there is a need for a collective consciousness that fuels engaged action. While engaged action is relatively familiar in social work more broadly, social work educators are in the position to influence university policy.

Methodology

In utilising the autoethnographic narrative approach, we ask readers to engage in cultural humility by considering stories as tools for learning more about individual students’ writing backgrounds. ‘Changing the dominant narrative: a call for using storytelling as language and literacy theory, research methodology, and practice’ (Johnson et al, 2017: 471) suggested that ‘one advantage of storytelling is that it allows us to put our collective stories in conversation with one another and against dominant narratives and stories that perpetuate white privilege, white supremacy, and patriarchy’. The authors aim to (re)claim ‘humanness in literacy education and research’ (Johnson et al, 2017: 471); we intentionally disrupt hegemonic repertoires to avoid a big-data ‘box problem’ that overshadows individual narratives in view of mainstream homogenies (Rogoff and Angelillo, 2002); and we tap into an individual experience to recognise that narrativised cultural capital is valuable (Howard, 2019). Moreover, this narrative illustrates how micro-literacy skills like grammar and mechanics lead to choices made in the act of storytelling. The autoethnographic case study that follows explores the experience of Doctor of Social Work Widian Nicola, a licensed clinical social worker (LCSW), assistant professor of social work and psychotherapist who specialises in women’s mental health and couples therapy, as well as immigrant justice.

Autoethnographic narrative: from student to teacher

I arrived in the US at eight years old and knew fewer than ten words. As I entered the fourth grade, I was assigned an English as a second language (ESL) teacher, who helped me strengthen my reading and writing skills. My writing developed over the years and constructing a sentence into a paragraph became second nature. When I reached ninth grade, Mrs Rog expanded my writing capacity considerably. She taught me how to summarise, build an argument, make connections and structure paragraphs. Later, other English teachers supported me to transcend these concrete principles and focused on helping me enhance my ability to think critically. Once I reached college and graduate school, writing became a critical mechanism for achieving social justice.

While, on the surface, reading and writing (and strong literacy) appear to be a means to social work ends, I have come to learn that impact in social work is significantly determined by language, that is, language that is expressed in writing and used to advance a powerful social work agenda. As a social work student, the experience of close reading and writing supported me in synthesising research, determining inferences and deconstructing complex patterns and ideas into cogent and meaningful arguments. More importantly, however, was the way in which reading and writing became a tool for understanding and expressing more fully social work ideas and perspectives, ready for dissemination beyond the social work realm. Almost all of the texts with which I engaged throughout my education have been in standard English.

Today, as a social work educator, my role looks much like that of my ESL and English teachers: to assist students in both knowledge and attitude development. The fundamental difference in what is practised by my students, however, is critical. That fundamental difference is the issue of social justice. As a learner turned educator, I have a heightened sense of awareness about the growing needs of students of colour in social work education, particularly immigrant and first-generation students, who are disproportionately affected by inequality, racism and a severe gap in academic resources leading to college – all of which are a part of my personal narrative and lived experience. Accordingly, the integration of literary skills to reduce the achievement gap is an anti-racist approach that I have personally benefited from, facilitated and fostered, first by creative-writing instructors and grammarians who taught me how to construct sentences and paragraphs, and later in a doctorate of social work programme that intentionally connected reading and writing skills to social work research and practice.

The principal value of the literacy instruction embedded in my advanced doctoral studies was the deliberate focus on phenomenology and narrative construction, namely, narrative construction that made practical and comprehensible the elusive ingredient of intersubjectivity. In other words, the literary skill to narrativise a clinical encounter, or recount in detail a lived experience that would otherwise be out of reach to non-social work audiences, paradoxically magnifies and expands greater comprehension of embodied trauma caused by racism, for example, and other issues seen in social work practice (and experienced by social work students). By extension, to masterfully write a story is to rewrite history. That is to say, anti-racist literacy instruction in social work education has the capacity to embolden and empower minority students to highlight their lived experiences and those of others similarly affected by inequality (particularly their clients), though less often found in social work literature or heard in mainstream media, thus correcting the dominant social narrative and making it more complete.

While social work education was a vital force in supporting my work as a practitioner generally, the academic English literacy instruction I received supported my work as an advocate personally. For example, as an undocumented immigrant of nearly 30 years, enhanced literary instruction in my social work education aided me in contributing to the social work literature, giving voice to the lived experience of this specific type of trauma, experienced disproportionately by minority groups and rooted in systemic racism. Further, enhancing my social work writing has supported larger social work strategies and tactics to achieve racial equity. For instance, writing to members of congress, offering op-ed pieces or educating/instructing students and other practitioners on how to do the same contributes to the profession’s vision for full social equality.

Student to educator

The transition from student to educator has helped me develop a unique perspective that allows me to serve students from a multiplicity of intersecting and overlapping identities. While social work educators are tasked with the exciting opportunity of preparing and equipping students to become proficient, competent and compassionate practitioners, the value added lies in the conscious and intentional delivery of that support, which often comes from a deeply personal connection, as it is for me.

This service to students (and to those whom they will eventually serve) extends beyond the shared social work curriculum – and beyond basic writing instruction. Instead, the form and level of instruction must intentionally address and reflect the social needs of students. In other words, if writing is the yardstick used to measure student achievement post-graduation and, by extension, social impact and intersubjective development, a more nuanced and multilayered social work academic response is necessary.

One way to achieve this goal is through the adaptation of critical and integrated literacy instruction that supports the development of skills that are transferable to successful job acquisition and social work practice, as well as anti-racist skills that support minority students in the long term. Further, deliberate writing instruction allows social work educators to assess student literacy levels and student social work competency. In other words, writing instruction has the capability to support the evaluation of the form and application of social work theories by students in a way that other academic assessment tools do not, for example, multiple choice examinations. This evaluation is crucial to the construction of supportive academic scaffolding for minority and first-generation students, who, as indicated earlier, historically have fewer academic resources leading up to social work education.

Meeting the goal of providing ample literacy instruction to students is necessitated by two variables: the integration of deliberate writing instruction in social work education (proceeded by an acknowledgement of its essentiality in cultivating anti-racist instruction for students); and a practical shift in faculty development, both in training and in diversity. As a social work educator, first-generation college and graduate student, and immigrant of minority ethnicity, the broad academic experiences I have had only reinforced writing instruction as a social justice imperative. That is to say, the massive academic and professional influence social work instructors possess must be met with a duty to learn how to instruct anti-racist pedagogy to avoid the perpetuation of implicit racism (leading to micro-aggressions) by faculty, which can often be promoted by misperceptions of students with weak writing skills. This engagement of students and faculty begins well before students enter social work programmes, namely, in the admission process.

I am keenly aware of the direct influence of my social work and literacy education on students. As such, a commitment to creating systemic structures of support for students, minority students in particular, is crucial. For example, as the chair of the Admission Committee tasked with evaluating and assessing the appropriateness of fit of students with our programme, I find that faculty education about the inherent bias and racism of traditional admission processes helps to combat the barriers. For example, in addition to the review of previous academic performance and letters of recommendation, a key component of a student’s application is a personal statement – a tool that often personalises and amplifies a student’s unique narrative and motivation to enter the field of social work. The personal statement is an invaluable instrument that can often clarify student readiness for advanced academic study, as reflected not only in content, but also in students’ use of proper grammar and mechanics.

Not surprisingly, content and statement of purpose can get lost in non-academic forms of writing, distracting the reader from a student’s intended message and potentially resulting in a denial of admission. Denial for admission can further reinforce the gap in success between students of colour and their white counterparts. To respond to this potential admission challenge for candidates, several conscious anti-racist measures can be utilised.

First, review tools that account for writing development potential can aid in the process. For example, at our institution, the evaluative criteria for personal statements are based on both grammar and mechanics, as well as content, which removes potentially punitive measurements of student competency. Second, we include an interview process for candidates to speak about their aspirations and clarify their academic history, particularly in the areas of writing. While many students of colour do not have the same educational resources as more privileged students, interviews offer those students the opportunity to articulate what they may not have been able to in their writing, providing further clarification about the barriers that account for their poor writing skills. Finally, as a part of an extended admission process, all students are required to complete a mandatory writing workshop, facilitated by one of our faculty.

The workshop has a twofold focus – mechanics of writing and social work writing – both of which are essential to long-term student success in the attainment of employment and in social work practice. While the value and aim of the explicit content of the workshop is easily identifiable – for instance, case framing, organising research papers, the use of textual evidence, thesis statements and the effective incorporation of scholarly sources and evidence in writing – the implicit value lies in the faculty’s ability to evaluate the level of students’ writing skills and especially to identify what resources students will need in the programme, such as tutoring, the advanced review of submitted work (and the reworking of multiple revisions), continual guidance through the writing process, providing writing samples and so on. This anti-racist approach facilitates a proactive approach that accounts for and directly addresses the educational gap among students of colour. Rather than deficit, the approach focuses on potential, nurtured throughout the programme.

When faced with the academic rigour of graduate social work education, students whose writing skills are weaker bear the heavier responsibility of learning about social work and practice while also learning how to write. One way to fuse the two aspects of learning is to utilise various writing assignments that can challenge students’ understanding of social work perspectives, as well as provide an opportunity for practice in writing, like the use of case studies. Case studies and case-study exams are tools I continue to utilise in my social work classroom to support my students’ development of enhanced writing and literacy comprehension, and, by extension, social work competency and practice – essential for students of colour, who have had fewer literacy resources in their K-12 education.

Finally, a shift in faculty training (in anti-racist pedagogy and writing instruction) and diversity (of race and discipline) is essential for developing and enhancing anti-racist strategies to best support students. By integrating English faculty and/or supporting social work educators through advanced training on writing instruction, students’ skills can be more fully nurtured from the start of their academic careers. It was not until I reached my advanced studies that writing became a deliberate tool of enhancing my critical thinking and practice. What supported that development was the addition of an English faculty in the doctoral programme I attended, which was an intentional decision that served as a commitment to an anti-racist pedagogy and altered the trajectory of my work, as was the case for other minority ethnic students in the programme.

Similarly, it was not until I reached my doctoral studies that I encountered any BIPOC [Black, Indigenous, and People of Color] faculty (and none throughout my education who shared my racial identity). While diversity can be integrated in many forms in social work education, a commitment to diversifying the racial and ethnic make-up of faculty is helpful in supporting students to assume a scholarly identity that encourages enhanced social justice expression via writing. Racially and ethnically diverse faculty can offer unique support to students, particularly when paired with writing about such issues in service or dismantling racism, both individually and more broadly.

Discussion

Many moments in this narrative connect to integrated writing instruction for people of colour. The author begins with a recollection of early writing instruction to show that she was granted access to specialised ESL teaching, which is based on standard conventions. While programming is available for people who come from outside of the US, equal access is not present for people within the US whose English is a first language. From this ESL-educated position, the author had access to more targeted skills of reading and writing for academic English-speaking audiences. Rather than feeling normed into English, the author experiences gratitude for instruction that opened doors in academic contexts. This linguistically based English instruction helped the author to become a leader in her field, which is something of a double-edged sword – perhaps she was influenced by codeswitching in ways that preserved white dominance in writing arenas. However, although academically based literacy instruction often allows for easier access to publication, which can narrow the tenure gap for people of colour, her leadership method, namely, storytelling, allowed her to take in conventions yet make them her own, without a loss of personal agency. The author’s advocacy work has been bolstered by an ability to connect with a variety of audiences with multiple academic literacies.

On the whole, we noticed that deliberate and integrated writing instruction allows social work educators to assess student literacy levels and student social work competency. For many educators, writing assignments, such as a final case study or smaller reflection papers, can serve as informative tools in evaluating student comprehension and application of theory. Coherence in writing (in any form) by a student reflects a student’s ability to think critically and creatively, make connections, and determine how a student might relate to the text personally, thereby widening the use of self in practice, which is particularly valuable to students of colour, whose narrative is less dominant in mainstream practice. Therefore, integrated literacy instruction is not limited to micro-level writing skills, such as syntax and diction, which only serve as a basis for building other skills, including reading others’ work in peer review and workshop settings.

However, faculty in the position to integrate these skills are few, and although the author of the narrative feels compelled to help, an underground culture where this responsibility falls heavily on Black and Brown instructors is present. Many speakers of Englishes fear the judgement of white faculty, whose individual biases, which they may not be aware of, often cause micro-aggressive commenting practices that call students out for grammar – even when their own English is not scientifically standard. In fact, students of colour are already conscious of racial bias and have lost trust in feedback by the eighth grade (Yeager et al, 2017). Even if faculty are trained in giving racially sensitive feedback, problems with writing instruction can occur subconsciously: in one study, researchers found that comments on the same writing sample changed when the commenter was told the race of the writer (Mendoza-Denton et al, 2010). Racially sensitive feedback aims to improve self-esteem and motivation, but anti-racist pedagogy should more directly respect all students as valued persons ‘with good prospects’, without veiled feedback, as the key to strengthening students’ engagement (Mendoza-Denton et al, 2010). Otherwise, we are prone to positive bias, in which writers of colour receive more praise and encouragement conveyed in a ‘lenient’ or patronising style because of faculty discomfort, thereby causing people of colour to get dishonest and simpler feedback (Harber et al, 2019).

Cultural humility is seeing the true impact of ‘nice’ practices. Perhaps when all faculty have the opportunity to be trained in elements of applied linguistics, they will be less prone to bias and more grounded in the best practices of writing instruction, going beyond anti-racism and towards overall anti-oppression. However, we are not there yet. If we were, we could realise the potential of Flores and Rosa’s (2015: 150) important work on how ‘racializing language ideologies through which different racialized bodies come to be constructed’ relate to appropriateness for audiences in the academy; we would no longer see the statistics that appear at the beginning of this article, which ‘conflate certain racialized bodies with linguistic deficiency unrelated to any objective linguistic practices’. However, these ideological constructions unfortunately remain. As the narrative explains, admissions processes are still steeped in academic appropriateness in ways that intersect with race and class. Hence, our initiative seeks a community reparative process invested in relational understandings of linguistics.

Conclusion

We frequently discuss the need to address writing insufficiency in social work programmes; however, we (social work programmes and faculty) must also address how we may be contributing to the writing deficiency of students (Rai, 2004) in order to employ cultural humility as individual faculty members and administrators (Fisher-Borne et al, 2015). This approach involves faculty and administration conducting an honest self-evaluation and acknowledging their thoughts and behaviours that negatively impact students and their writing. A culturally humble assessment might: formally examine the internal and external dialogue of faculty, and the impact it has on students; produce a better understanding of how and why students miss the mark in writing; provide research on faculty and student experience for the school to assess; and offer resources, such as APA workshops, faculty writing mentorships and tutoring. Social work programmes could also consider formal training programmes for faculty members.

Cultural humility also requires the programmes to engage in institutional accountability, where we must challenge the status quo and systemic issues that exacerbate the writing issues previously defined (Fisher-Borne et al, 2015). For example, by identifying the types of programme policies (or lack of policies) in place that help or hinder students’ academic writing, the institutional policies that help or hinder graduate students, and whether university writing centres provide assistance to graduate students, institutions could work towards eliminating the writing divide with graduate students by implementing mandatory writing courses, creating peer-support writing programmes, and developing a social-work-specific writing tutoring programme. Social work programmes could also codify faculty and student writing criteria to ensure all students and faculty are on the same page. Institutions that provide programmes like these make it a mandatory class for students prior to starting the programme.

Among ourselves, as educators, we have the opportunity to form partnerships in which writing together plays a major part. For example, in the collaborative writing of this article, we forged relationships through the act of group composition, during which we could learn from each other holistically and with cultural humility. As co-authors (and lifelong students), we participated in rich conversations surrounding our shared vision for this article, generally and specifically related to the themes discussed here. We each brought an area of expertise – cultural competency, social work education and writing instruction – and came to our shared vision. Our dialogue also led us to the seemingly basic question of authorship. While the sequence of authorship is commonly and relatively objectively determined by several criteria (content contribution, drafting and revising, accountability and so on), integrating cultural humility was a priority and also meant expanding these criteria to account for our shared contributions. To that end, we made the intentional decision to participate in an uncommon practice of sharing the first-author position. While our contributions are varied, they also hold unique values, without which the fight against injustice would not have been possible.

Note

1

All authors contributed equally to this project.

Acknowledgements

The authors would like to acknowledge Shari Cunningham, Dana Michelle Harris, Alex Gatten and Ajua Kouadio.

Author Contributions

All authors contributed equally.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest.

References

  • Accurso, K. and Mizell, J.D. (2020) Toward an antiracist genre pedagogy: considerations for a North American context, TESOL Journal, 11(e554): 117. doi: 10.1002/tesj.554

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Baker-Bell, A. (2020) Linguistic Justice: Black Language, Literacy, Identity, and Pedagogy, London: Routledge.

  • Banks, J.A. and Banks, C.A.M. (Eds) (2019) Multicultural Education: Issues and Perspectives, New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons.

  • Blakeney, A.M. (2005) Antiracist pedagogy: definition, theory, purpose and professional development, Journal of Curriculum and Pedagogy, 2(1): 11932. doi: 10.1080/15505170.2005.10411532

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Brunsma, D.L., Embrick, D.G. and Shin, J.H. (2017) Graduate students of color: race, racism, and mentoring in the white waters of academia, Sociology of Race and Ethnicity, 3(1): 113. doi: 10.1177/2332649216681565

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • CSWE [Council on Social Work Education] (2015) Education policy and accreditation standards for baccalaureate and master’s social work programs, https://www.cswe.org/getattachment/Accreditation/STandards-and-Policies/2015-EPAS/2015EPASandGlossary.pdf.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cronley, C. and Kilgore, C.D. (2016) Social work students and faculty: testing the convergence of perspectives on student writing abilities, Journal of Social Work Education, 52(2): 21433. doi: 10.1080/10437797.2016.1151275

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fischer, K. (2012) Many foreign students are friendless in the US, study finds, The Chronicle of Higher Education, 18.

  • Fisher-Borne, M., Cain, J.M. and Martin, S.L. (2015) From mastery to accountability: cultural humility as an alternative to cultural competence, Social Work Education, 34(2): 16581. doi: 10.1080/02615479.2014.977244

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Flores, N. and Rosa, J. (2015) Undoing appropriateness: raciolinguistic ideologies and language diversity in education, Harvard Educational Review, 85(2): 14971. doi: 10.17763/0017-8055.85.2.149

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Foronda, C., Baptiste, D.L., Reinholdt, M.M. and Ousman, K. (2016) Cultural humility: a concept analysis, Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 27(3): 21017. doi: 10.1177/1043659615592677

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gherardi, S., Gurrola, M. and Tafoya, J. (2020) Student writing and social justice education: lessons from one BSW writing workshop, Social Work Education, 116.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gordon-Handler, L., Dimitropoulou, K., Hassan, L., Masaracchio, M. and Waldman-Levi, A. (2019) Exploration of graduate health care student writing skills using a transformational learning approach to a literacy enrichment program, Journal of Allied Health, 48(3): 2018.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Grosland, T.J. (2013) An examination of the role of emotions in antiracist pedagogy: implications, scholarship, and practices, Review of Education, Pedagogy, and Cultural Studies, 35(4): 31932. doi: 10.1080/10714413.2013.819722

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Harber, K.D., Reeves, S., Gorman, J.L., Williams, C.H., Malin, J. and Pennebaker, J.W. (2019) The conflicted language of interracial feedback, Journal of Educational Psychology, 111(7): 1220. doi: 10.1037/edu0000326

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Horton, E.G. and Diaz, N. (2011) Learning to write and writing to learn social work concepts: application of writing across the curriculum strategies and techniques to a course for undergraduate social work students, Journal of Teaching in Social Work, 31(1): 5364. doi: 10.1080/08841233.2010.539141

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Howard, T.C. (2019) Why Race and Culture Matter in Schools: Closing the Achievement Gap in America’s Classrooms, New York, NY: Teachers College Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jacobs, C. (2015) Opening up the curriculum: moving from the normative to the transformative in teachers’ understandings of disciplinary literacy practices, Working with Academic Literacies: Case Studies Towards Transformative Practice, 13141.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jaffe, M. (2020) The‘practice’ of close reading and writing in social work education, Writing & Pedagogy, 12(1): 13956, doi: 10.1558/wap.37454.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jani, J.S. and Mellinger, M.S. (2015) Beyond ‘writing to learn’: factors influencing students’ writing outcomes, Journal of Social Work Education, 51(1): 13652. doi: 10.1080/10437797.2015.977177

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Johnson, L.L., Gibbs Grey, T.D. and Baker-Bell, A. (2017) Changing the dominant narrative: a call for using storytelling as language and literacy theory, research methodology, and practice, Journal of Literacy Research, 49(4): 46775. doi: 10.1177/1086296X17733492

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kahn, J.M. and Holody, R. (2012) Supporting field instructors’ efforts to help students improve writing, Journal of Social Work Education, 48(1): 6573. doi: 10.5175/JSWE.2012.201000018

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kishimoto, K. (2016) Anti-racist pedagogy: from faculty’s self-reflection to organizing within and beyond the classroom, Race, Ethnicity and Education, 2(4): 54054. doi: 10.1080/13613324.2016.1248824

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kokaliari, E.D., Brainerd, M. and Roy, A. (2012) A longitudinal study of assessing APA writing competence at a BSW program, Journal of Teaching in Social Work, 32(5): 56677. doi: 10.1080/08841233.2012.725706

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kolb, P. (2013) Implementation of Writing Across the Curriculum (WAC) learning approaches in social work and sociology gerontology courses, Gerontology & Geriatrics Education, 34(2): 21223.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lazar, A.M., Edwards, P.A. and McMillon, G.T. (2012) Bridging Literacy and Equity: The Essential Guide to Social Equity Teaching, New York, NY: Teachers College Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Love, B.J. (2000) Developing a liberatory consciousness, Readings for Diversity and Social Justice, 2: 4704.

  • Luna, N., Horton, E.G. and Galin, J.R. (2014) The effectiveness of writing across the curriculum in a baccalaureate social work program: students’ perceptions, Advances in Social Work, 15(2): 390408. doi: 10.18060/15692

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • McLeod, S. and Maimon, E. (2000) Clearing the air: WAC myths and realities, College English, 62(5): 57383. doi: 10.2307/378962

  • McCluney, C.L., Durkee, M.I., Smith, R.E. II, Robotham, K.J. and Lee, S.S.L. (2021) To be, or not to be … Black: the effects of racial codeswitching on perceived professionalism in the workplace, Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 97: 104199. doi: 10.1016/j.jesp.2021.104199

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • McCoy, D.L. and Winkle-Wagner, R. (2015) Bridging the divide: developing a scholarly habitus for aspiring graduate students through summer bridge programs participation, Journal of College Student Development, 56(5): 42339. doi: 10.1353/csd.2015.0054

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mendoza-Denton, R., Goldman-Flythe, M., Pietrzak, J., Downey, G. and Aceves, M.J. (2010) Group-value ambiguity: understanding the effects of academic feedback on minority students’ self-esteem, Social Psychological and Personality Science, 1(2): 12735, doi: 10.1177/1948550609357796.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Moor, K.S., Jensen-Hart, S. and Hooper, R.I. (2012) Small change, big difference: heightening BSW faculty awareness to elicit more effective student writing, Journal of Teaching in Social Work, 32(1): 6277. doi: 10.1080/08841233.2012.640601

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mupinga, E.E. and Mupinga, D.M. (2005) Perceptions of international students toward GRE, College Student Journal, 39(2): 4029.

  • NAEP (National Assessment of Educational Progress) (2017) https://nces.ed.gov/nationsreportcard/?src=ft.

  • NASW (National Association of Social Workers) (2015) Standards and indicators for cultural competence in social work practice, https://www.socialworkers.org/LinkClick.aspx?fileticket=7dVckZAYUmk%3D&portalid=0.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • NCES (National Center for Educational Statistics) (2019) Home, https://nces.ed.gov/.

  • Nelson, P. and Weatherald, C. (2014) Cracking the code – an approach to developing professional writing skills, Social Work Education, 33(1): 10520. doi: 10.1080/02615479.2012.740453

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ondrusek, A.L. (2012) What the research reveals about graduate students’ writing skills: a literature review, Journal of Education for Library and Information Science, 17688.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rai, L. (2004) Exploring literacy in social work education: a social practices approach to student writing, Social Work Education, 23(2): 14962. doi: 10.1080/0261547042000209170

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rai, L. and Lillis, T. (2013) ‘Getting it write’ in social work: exploring the value of writing in academia to writing for professional practice, Teaching in Higher Education, 18(4): 35264. doi: 10.1080/13562517.2012.719157

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rogoff, B. and Angelillo, C. (2002) Investigating the coordinated functioning of multifaceted cultural practices in human development, Human Development, 45(4): 21125. doi: 10.1159/000064981

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sharpe, E., Moriarty, J., Stevens, M., Manthorpe, J. and Hussein, S. (2011) Into the workforce: Report from a study of new social work graduates, funded under the Department of Health Social Care Workforce Research Initiative.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • St Clair, D. and Kishimoto, K. (2010) Decolonizing teaching: a cross-curricular and collaborative model for teaching about race in the university, Multicultural Education, 18(1): 1824.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tervalon, M. and Murray-Garcia, J. (1998) Cultural humility versus cultural competence: a critical distinction in defining physician training outcomes in multicultural education, Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved, 92: 11725. doi: 10.1353/hpu.2010.0233

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Thomas, J.L., Schuster, E.O. and Fuller, A.R. (2016) Giving our students professional voice: development and implementation of a BSW course on writing for agency practice, Journal of Social Work Education, 52(2): 23441. doi: 10.1080/10437797.2016.1151277

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Weiner, S.A. (2012) Institutionalizing information literacy, The Journal of Academic Librarianship, 38(5): 28793. doi: 10.1016/j.acalib.2012.05.004

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Yeager, D.S., Purdie-Vaughns, V., Hooper, S.Y. and Cohen, G.L. (2017) Loss of institutional trust among racial and ethnic minority adolescents: a consequence of procedural injustice and a cause of life-span outcomes, Child Development, 88(2): 65876. doi: 10.1111/cdev.12697

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zemliansky, P. and Berry, L. (2017) A writing-across-the-curriculum faculty development program: an experience report, IEEE Transactions on Professional Communication, 60(3): 30616. doi: 10.1109/TPC.2017.2702041

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Accurso, K. and Mizell, J.D. (2020) Toward an antiracist genre pedagogy: considerations for a North American context, TESOL Journal, 11(e554): 117. doi: 10.1002/tesj.554

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Baker-Bell, A. (2020) Linguistic Justice: Black Language, Literacy, Identity, and Pedagogy, London: Routledge.

  • Banks, J.A. and Banks, C.A.M. (Eds) (2019) Multicultural Education: Issues and Perspectives, New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons.

  • Blakeney, A.M. (2005) Antiracist pedagogy: definition, theory, purpose and professional development, Journal of Curriculum and Pedagogy, 2(1): 11932. doi: 10.1080/15505170.2005.10411532

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Brunsma, D.L., Embrick, D.G. and Shin, J.H. (2017) Graduate students of color: race, racism, and mentoring in the white waters of academia, Sociology of Race and Ethnicity, 3(1): 113. doi: 10.1177/2332649216681565

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • CSWE [Council on Social Work Education] (2015) Education policy and accreditation standards for baccalaureate and master’s social work programs, https://www.cswe.org/getattachment/Accreditation/STandards-and-Policies/2015-EPAS/2015EPASandGlossary.pdf.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cronley, C. and Kilgore, C.D. (2016) Social work students and faculty: testing the convergence of perspectives on student writing abilities, Journal of Social Work Education, 52(2): 21433. doi: 10.1080/10437797.2016.1151275

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fischer, K. (2012) Many foreign students are friendless in the US, study finds, The Chronicle of Higher Education, 18.

  • Fisher-Borne, M., Cain, J.M. and Martin, S.L. (2015) From mastery to accountability: cultural humility as an alternative to cultural competence, Social Work Education, 34(2): 16581. doi: 10.1080/02615479.2014.977244

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Flores, N. and Rosa, J. (2015) Undoing appropriateness: raciolinguistic ideologies and language diversity in education, Harvard Educational Review, 85(2): 14971. doi: 10.17763/0017-8055.85.2.149

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Foronda, C., Baptiste, D.L., Reinholdt, M.M. and Ousman, K. (2016) Cultural humility: a concept analysis, Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 27(3): 21017. doi: 10.1177/1043659615592677

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gherardi, S., Gurrola, M. and Tafoya, J. (2020) Student writing and social justice education: lessons from one BSW writing workshop, Social Work Education, 116.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gordon-Handler, L., Dimitropoulou, K., Hassan, L., Masaracchio, M. and Waldman-Levi, A. (2019) Exploration of graduate health care student writing skills using a transformational learning approach to a literacy enrichment program, Journal of Allied Health, 48(3): 2018.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Grosland, T.J. (2013) An examination of the role of emotions in antiracist pedagogy: implications, scholarship, and practices, Review of Education, Pedagogy, and Cultural Studies, 35(4): 31932. doi: 10.1080/10714413.2013.819722

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Harber, K.D., Reeves, S., Gorman, J.L., Williams, C.H., Malin, J. and Pennebaker, J.W. (2019) The conflicted language of interracial feedback, Journal of Educational Psychology, 111(7): 1220. doi: 10.1037/edu0000326

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Horton, E.G. and Diaz, N. (2011) Learning to write and writing to learn social work concepts: application of writing across the curriculum strategies and techniques to a course for undergraduate social work students, Journal of Teaching in Social Work, 31(1): 5364. doi: 10.1080/08841233.2010.539141

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Howard, T.C. (2019) Why Race and Culture Matter in Schools: Closing the Achievement Gap in America’s Classrooms, New York, NY: Teachers College Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jacobs, C. (2015) Opening up the curriculum: moving from the normative to the transformative in teachers’ understandings of disciplinary literacy practices, Working with Academic Literacies: Case Studies Towards Transformative Practice, 13141.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jaffe, M. (2020) The‘practice’ of close reading and writing in social work education, Writing & Pedagogy, 12(1): 13956, doi: 10.1558/wap.37454.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jani, J.S. and Mellinger, M.S. (2015) Beyond ‘writing to learn’: factors influencing students’ writing outcomes, Journal of Social Work Education, 51(1): 13652. doi: 10.1080/10437797.2015.977177

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Johnson, L.L., Gibbs Grey, T.D. and Baker-Bell, A. (2017) Changing the dominant narrative: a call for using storytelling as language and literacy theory, research methodology, and practice, Journal of Literacy Research, 49(4): 46775. doi: 10.1177/1086296X17733492

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kahn, J.M. and Holody, R. (2012) Supporting field instructors’ efforts to help students improve writing, Journal of Social Work Education, 48(1): 6573. doi: 10.5175/JSWE.2012.201000018

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kishimoto, K. (2016) Anti-racist pedagogy: from faculty’s self-reflection to organizing within and beyond the classroom, Race, Ethnicity and Education, 2(4): 54054. doi: 10.1080/13613324.2016.1248824

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kokaliari, E.D., Brainerd, M. and Roy, A. (2012) A longitudinal study of assessing APA writing competence at a BSW program, Journal of Teaching in Social Work, 32(5): 56677. doi: 10.1080/08841233.2012.725706

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kolb, P. (2013) Implementation of Writing Across the Curriculum (WAC) learning approaches in social work and sociology gerontology courses, Gerontology & Geriatrics Education, 34(2): 21223.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lazar, A.M., Edwards, P.A. and McMillon, G.T. (2012) Bridging Literacy and Equity: The Essential Guide to Social Equity Teaching, New York, NY: Teachers College Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Love, B.J. (2000) Developing a liberatory consciousness, Readings for Diversity and Social Justice, 2: 4704.

  • Luna, N., Horton, E.G. and Galin, J.R. (2014) The effectiveness of writing across the curriculum in a baccalaureate social work program: students’ perceptions, Advances in Social Work, 15(2): 390408. doi: 10.18060/15692

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • McLeod, S. and Maimon, E. (2000) Clearing the air: WAC myths and realities, College English, 62(5): 57383. doi: 10.2307/378962

  • McCluney, C.L., Durkee, M.I., Smith, R.E. II, Robotham, K.J. and Lee, S.S.L. (2021) To be, or not to be … Black: the effects of racial codeswitching on perceived professionalism in the workplace, Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 97: 104199. doi: 10.1016/j.jesp.2021.104199

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • McCoy, D.L. and Winkle-Wagner, R. (2015) Bridging the divide: developing a scholarly habitus for aspiring graduate students through summer bridge programs participation, Journal of College Student Development, 56(5): 42339. doi: 10.1353/csd.2015.0054

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mendoza-Denton, R., Goldman-Flythe, M., Pietrzak, J., Downey, G. and Aceves, M.J. (2010) Group-value ambiguity: understanding the effects of academic feedback on minority students’ self-esteem, Social Psychological and Personality Science, 1(2): 12735, doi: 10.1177/1948550609357796.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Moor, K.S., Jensen-Hart, S. and Hooper, R.I. (2012) Small change, big difference: heightening BSW faculty awareness to elicit more effective student writing, Journal of Teaching in Social Work, 32(1): 6277. doi: 10.1080/08841233.2012.640601

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mupinga, E.E. and Mupinga, D.M. (2005) Perceptions of international students toward GRE, College Student Journal, 39(2): 4029.

  • NAEP (National Assessment of Educational Progress) (2017) https://nces.ed.gov/nationsreportcard/?src=ft.

  • NASW (National Association of Social Workers) (2015) Standards and indicators for cultural competence in social work practice, https://www.socialworkers.org/LinkClick.aspx?fileticket=7dVckZAYUmk%3D&portalid=0.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • NCES (National Center for Educational Statistics) (2019) Home, https://nces.ed.gov/.

  • Nelson, P. and Weatherald, C. (2014) Cracking the code – an approach to developing professional writing skills, Social Work Education, 33(1): 10520. doi: 10.1080/02615479.2012.740453

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ondrusek, A.L. (2012) What the research reveals about graduate students’ writing skills: a literature review, Journal of Education for Library and Information Science, 17688.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rai, L. (2004) Exploring literacy in social work education: a social practices approach to student writing, Social Work Education, 23(2): 14962. doi: 10.1080/0261547042000209170

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rai, L. and Lillis, T. (2013) ‘Getting it write’ in social work: exploring the value of writing in academia to writing for professional practice, Teaching in Higher Education, 18(4): 35264. doi: 10.1080/13562517.2012.719157

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rogoff, B. and Angelillo, C. (2002) Investigating the coordinated functioning of multifaceted cultural practices in human development, Human Development, 45(4): 21125. doi: 10.1159/000064981

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sharpe, E., Moriarty, J., Stevens, M., Manthorpe, J. and Hussein, S. (2011) Into the workforce: Report from a study of new social work graduates, funded under the Department of Health Social Care Workforce Research Initiative.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • St Clair, D. and Kishimoto, K. (2010) Decolonizing teaching: a cross-curricular and collaborative model for teaching about race in the university, Multicultural Education, 18(1): 1824.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tervalon, M. and Murray-Garcia, J. (1998) Cultural humility versus cultural competence: a critical distinction in defining physician training outcomes in multicultural education, Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved, 92: 11725. doi: 10.1353/hpu.2010.0233

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Thomas, J.L., Schuster, E.O. and Fuller, A.R. (2016) Giving our students professional voice: development and implementation of a BSW course on writing for agency practice, Journal of Social Work Education, 52(2): 23441. doi: 10.1080/10437797.2016.1151277

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Weiner, S.A. (2012) Institutionalizing information literacy, The Journal of Academic Librarianship, 38(5): 28793. doi: 10.1016/j.acalib.2012.05.004

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Yeager, D.S., Purdie-Vaughns, V., Hooper, S.Y. and Cohen, G.L. (2017) Loss of institutional trust among racial and ethnic minority adolescents: a consequence of procedural injustice and a cause of life-span outcomes, Child Development, 88(2): 65876. doi: 10.1111/cdev.12697

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zemliansky, P. and Berry, L. (2017) A writing-across-the-curriculum faculty development program: an experience report, IEEE Transactions on Professional Communication, 60(3): 30616. doi: 10.1109/TPC.2017.2702041

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
Social Work Writing Collaborative, Miriam Jaffe, Natalie Bembry1, and Widian Nicola2
  • 1 Rutgers University, USA
  • | 2 Seton Hall University, USA

Content Metrics

May 2022 onwards Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 36 36 36
Full Text Views 54 54 54
PDF Downloads 29 29 29

Altmetrics

Dimensions