Critical and Radical Social Work
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Black Lives Matter Special Edition: Critical and Radical Social Work ten years on

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  • 1 University of Salford, UK
  • | 2 Bangor University, UK
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We are pleased to bring together this collection of articles in a special issue focusing on the theme of Black Lives Matter (BLM). The imperatives of this campaign, which were reasserted in 2020, are not new to social work. The ambition to establish social work as an anti-racist profession has been ongoing over some decades and with a number of twists and turns. In 2019, Critical and Radical Social Work (CRSW) published a social work ‘Black history timeline’ as a discursive tool for consideration of the legacy of the profession in respect of its response to issues of racial inequality. In this special edition, we sought to complement that marker, recognising the critical momentum of the BLM campaign. The unequivocal collective message is that social work must shift from generalised notions of anti-oppressive practice to the specificity of intersectional anti-racist practice. In the words of Philomena Harrison’s article, we invite you to ‘sit with the discomfort’ of the uncomfortable uncompromising messages that constitute ‘the transformation of silence into language and action’ (Lorde, 1984 [1977]).

The establishment of the Black Lives Matter campaign dates back to 2013, returning to international attention in 2020 following the murder of George Floyd by Minneapolis police officer Derek Chauvin. Floyd’s death spurred an outcry across the world, prompting one of the largest collective protests in history. The protest was characterised by Black and White people walking in solidarity, taking the knee and adopting strategies of peaceful protest. The BLM debates took on different inflections in different country contexts. In Australia, the issue of Aboriginal deaths in custody took prominence, as well as the ‘Closing the Gap’ strategy failure of successive governments. In the US, the persistent and sustained legacy of deaths at the hands of the police spanning generations was reiterated. In several European countries, the discrimination facing second- and third-generation migrant youth, the plight of refugees, and newly emerged minoritised identities were central. In the UK, Black history and the legacy of colonialism was encapsulated in the public monuments debate. Black Lives Matter UK urges all to join the revolution and take a stand against racism.1

The catalytic confluence of a global pandemic magnified attention to the facts of racial inequality so tragically played out on that Minneapolis sidewalk. Its wake brought a moment of collective pause and reflection, as well as a sense that things should be and would be different as we move forward. The facts of racialised ethnic disparities in the impact of the pandemic, both national and international, added to the urgency of a refreshed approach.

What is sadly evident is that tackling racism does not come easy. What is also evident from a glance back in the histories of advanced Western nations is that such tragic incidents as the death of Floyd and many others clip the collective conscience but too often do not lead to lasting change. In 1993, the UK was stunned by the needless murder of an 18-year-old teenager from South-East London, Stephen Lawrence. The fallout from his murder led to a public inquiry into the actions of the police, headed by Sir William Macpherson, and a subsequent report, which concluded that the police force was institutionally racist (see Sociological Research Online, 1999). From Lawrence to Floyd, the issues of police brutality, neglect and discrimination, as well as the reverberated trauma on the lives of so many from Black and minoritised communities, have not been assuaged. As we write, the notion of ‘institutional racism’ is being undermined by the current UK government and fast being eroded in the national consciousness.

As the sudden surge of the BLM movement begins to wane, now more than ever comes the need to turn attention to actions that will make a difference to those oppressed by the injustices of intersectional racism. Change needs a sustained agenda, not a pop-up or a trendy rubric. Social work has long acknowledged its critical responsibility in this respect. At the height of the debate, Vava Tampa (2020) cogently argued that social workers need to do more than stand in solidarity with Black people and put forward a forthright call to action. Researchers, academics, policymakers, practitioners, activists and the situated knowledge of experts by experience have a role to play in this agenda and a role in asking critical questions about the emergent developments. What strategies is the profession mobilising in different country contexts? What has been the response in terms of actions and outcomes to improve the lives of Black and minority ethnic communities nationally and internationally? What does the research evidence tell us? These were the types of questions that we were raising when considering this special issue.

We received a strong response to our call for papers, and a dedicated cohort of authors offered their perspectives on this important theme. Perhaps unsurprisingly, responses from North America and the UK featured large in the submissions. With few exceptions, there was a notable silence from European countries, which stands in strong contrast to major issues arising on the continent. The plight of migrants in holding camps, the spectre of deaths at sea, Black refugees from the Ukraine war treated differentially at country borders and, across the Channel, a government willing to contravene legal mandate and the advice of the United Nations Refugee Agency in its proposal to redirect asylum seekers to holding camps in Rwanda. These are some of the stark contemporary images that shout loudly that Black lives do not matter and that speak to confirm Fortress Europe as an ongoing and tragic success. These geographies of race should concern us, not only at the level of policy and practice, but also in terms of our research efforts. Moreover, across the articles in this special edition is the call to engage with geographies of race in terms of ‘location’ as an active agent of anti-racist practices. Here, scrutiny of positionality in the criss-crossing configurations of power and privilege is essential.

Methodologically, race/ethnicity research in the UK has significantly developed in terms of both paradigmatic debate and the refinement of specific method.2 Learned societies and disciplines are critically reviewing ways in which they can decolonise disciplinary traditions, including ‘countering the colourblindness of disciplines’ (Crenshaw et al, 2019) and looking to more representation within the academy for Black and minority ethnic staff. The Royal Historical Society’s ‘Race, ethnicity & equality in UK history’ ground-breaking report provided an important prompt in this regard (Atkinson et al, 2018). The British Sociological Association’s study of ‘race’ in higher education (Joseph-Salisbury et al, 2021) followed suit and has sought to provide a repository of materials suitable for teaching in a decolonised curriculum, and a report produced by the Social Policy Association (Craig et al, 2019) took a similar focus. In social work, Williams (2020) provided an overview of the contemporary orientation in social work, arguing for a redux on race research in the discipline.

The articles in this special edition form an evidence base of anti-racist approaches that assert the necessity of indigenous, critical race, Black feminist and feminist anti-racist epistemologies in the discipline of social work. What is clear is that culturally competent models of practice that do not explicitly tackle the power dynamics of intersectional racism are not fit for purpose. In this special edition, Lobna Yassine and Emma Tseris (2022) argue that notions of ‘cultural competency’ and related constructs both normalise and invisibilise whiteness, and invite – and indeed justify – the surveillance and problematisation of racialised others. Yassine and Tseris’s examination of social work in Australia problematises ideas of social work’s ‘professional innocence’ in the context of white supremacy. They point to the devastating impacts of racism on First Nations peoples in contemporary Australia, including the alarming rates at which Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people are criminalised and incarcerated. Yassine and Tseris provide a shocking evidence base of the material implications of the invisibilising of whiteness through the language of cultural competency. An example of this is the fact that First Nations children in Australia are currently being placed in out-of-home care at unprecedented rates, creating an unacceptable and disproportional over-representation of First Nations children: in 2020, First Nations children in Australia were 11.4 times more likely to be removed from their families. Yassine and Tseris conclude that social work needs to work with community-led, anti-carceral grass-root groups and movements.

Scrutiny of international state apparatuses, including social work, demonstrate how they function as a scaffolding for and reproducer of colonial logics. The articles in this special edition invite critical examination of the knowledge production of Otherness. Marisela Montenegro and Joan Pujol’s (2022) paper uses the Columbus Monument in Barcelona to illustrate how institutional colonialism permeates social work. They point to such examples as seeing the ‘migrant as a problem’, which turns migrants into the objects of social work interventions. Drawing on Latin American decolonial perspectives, Montenegro and Pujol argue that epistemic violence materialises coloniality in social work, validating Western scientific understandings and systematically excluding other forms of knowledge. As academic activists who are entangled with the anti-racist, queer and feminist movements, Montenegro and Pujol argue for curriculums and professional trainings to foreground critical perspectives and situated analyses of feminist anti-racist pedagogies, including the traditions of Black, Chicano, indigenous and decolonial feminist thought.

Throughout this special edition, attention frequently turns to social work education and the academy to foreground the decolonising agenda. The articles by Prospera Tedam and Tam Cane, by Panagiotis Pentaris, Mariam Raja, Sue Hanna and Abiola Oresanya, and by Rojan Afrouz shine a light on the woeful inadequacies of anti-racist training and unpreparedness for the complexities of practice in the landscape of intersectional racism. Tedam and Cane (2022) use the concept of ‘racism evasiveness’ to interrogate findings from their research testimonies of anti-racism teaching being experienced as an ‘add-on’, ‘lip service’, ‘superficial’ and ‘not specific or detailed and not standing out’, with views that it ‘ought to have been longer than one hour’. Tedam and Tam’s research exposes the tendencies in social work education to avoid uncomfortable conversations by exploring the broader context of anti-oppressive practice and not anti-racism specifically. These issues are reiterated in the qualitative article by Panagiotis Pentaris, Mariam Raja, Sue Hanna and Abiola Oresanya (2022), who state that ‘the umbrella terminology of ‘anti-discriminatory practice’ dilutes the emphasis on a specific form of discrimination and its impact’. The devastating ripple impact cements an inequitable racial divide among students, academics and professionals. Black, Asian and racially minoritised people in social work experience the weathering effect of decreased job satisfaction, professional burnout and reduced employment opportunities. Pentaris et al call for the creation of safe spaces to counter the isolation, disconnection and silencing of Black, Asian and racially minoritised people in social work. In this vein, Afrouz (2022), a Kurdish Iranian woman of colour, speaks of her experiences of racism, exclusion and marginalisation as a social work educator. Afrouz’s article is situated in the history of Australian settler colonialism, where exclusion and racial denial are inherent in Australia’s national policy. Afrouz points to the role of social workers in ‘Stolen Generations’, where the children of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples were forcibly removed from their families and communities until the 1970s. Afrouz explains that social work is still considered a ‘white’ discipline and argues that multiculturalism does not resolve racism.

If anyone is in doubt about the pernicious problem of racism, holds the idea that the evils of racism are lesser in 2022 than previous centuries or believes that we are on a progressive trajectory of evolving humanity, we invite you to inhabit the articles by Susan McCarter (2022) and by Patience Udonsi (2022). In different ways, drawing on different examples, McCarter and Udonsi bear witness to the devastating impacts of young people’s lived experience of intersectional racism played out in the hands of state systems of education, criminal justice and social work. McCarter’s detailed quantitative analysis demonstrates that ‘Black girls are over-surveilled and over-punished in the school system, not because they are more dangerous or disruptive, but because of the structural conditioning that renders them deviant, adultified, attention-seeking, hyper-sexual and victimless by adults as well as peers’. McCarter draws our attention to a specific type of discrimination called ‘misogynoir’. Black girls live in the intersection of race and gender, where they experience the inevitable injury of the collision of misogyny and anti-Blackness. McCarter’s deconstruction of the intersectional factors contributing to the overcriminalisation of Black girls includes race/ethnicity/culture, socio-economic status, gender identity and sexual orientation, ability status, trauma, violence, and abuse.

The article by Udonsi uses the case study of an 18-year-old Black African young man who has a diagnosis of an intellectual disability and an autism spectrum condition. Udonsi’s analysis exposes the erasure of intersectional race, intellectual and neurodivergent identities in UK health and social care policies. The consequences for individual young Black men and their families are the misrecognition and misdiagnosis of needs. The consequences on a national level are the increased rates of incarceration for Black men. Udonsi’s compelling account exposes the phenomenon of strategic silence to show that socially constructed borders of racism build a rationale of harm to self and others that takes on a moral imperative and confirmation bias. Udonsi is clear that neoliberalism is not colour-blind. So, yet again, the call to shift from the general to a specific naming and framing of racism is asserted across the artices in this special edition. General terms, such as neoliberalism, ethnicity and anti-oppressive practice, need to explicitly and directly identify the issue of racism so that the erasure, dilution, disavowal, denial and claims to ignorance and innocence are held to account.

The demand ‘We want our own data!’ headlines the articles written by a Black community collective in Quebec. Here, Alicia Boatswain Kyte (2022) in collaboration with nine other authors – Brotman, Callender, Dejean, Hanley, Jivraj, Lindor, Moran, Muir and Puspparajah – show us the anti-racist potential of Black emancipatory action research (BEAR). The BEAR approach, of research by, with and for Black communities, foregrounds the knowledge and experience of Black community members for community accountability, social justice and emancipation. Boatswain Kyte et al argue that ‘Hidden behind the rhetoric of value-free and scientific health data is a social discourse of White, cis, hetero, able-bodied supremacy’. Indeed, the absence of ‘good’ data on the health realities of Black communities is not merely a gap, but a form of systemic anti-Black racism. Boatswain Kyte et al outline the components of the BEAR approach as: structural racialisation; intersectionality and the social construction of knowledge; the development of critical consciousness; and love, healing and commitment to social justice.

The collective chorus of the articles in this special edition are a resounding refrain for intersectionality. Suryia Nayak’s (2022) compelling article offers an urgently needed anti-racist decolonised model of intersectional reflection that explicitly scrutinises the interconnected interdependency of vectors of power to reveal the compound injuries of intersectional racism, while mapping locations of emancipation. Nayak uses the lens of Black feminist intersectionality to critically analyse the production of knowledge in social work. Using a detailed examination of social work tools of reflection, most of which were designed by white men decades ago, Nayak argues that cyclical or chronological designs of reflection are not fit for purpose because ‘Racism is always intersectional. Racism does not safely circle the roundabout of the intersection of the roads of oppression.’ Nayak uses a range of metaphors to highlight the complex interplay of power, privilege and position. In its design, Nayak’s model of intersectional reflection enables practitioners to apply intersectionality in a tangible way that shifts intersectionality from being an abstract word to concrete action. Nayak invites us to visualise a crossroads intersection and undertake the tasks of: (1) naming the roads of social inequality and how they criss-cross; (2) naming the vehicles of oppression on roads of social inequality; (3) describing the crash at the intersection; and (4) describing the bio-psychosocial injuries. In addition, Nayak invites practitioners to move from professional curiosity to intersectionality curiosity as a tool of anti-racist practice.

The emotional labour of writing the articles in this special edition cannot be underestimated. As Philomena Harrison’s (2022) personal reflective article states:

Talking about the experience of racism is always painful in its recollection – always requiring the individual to relive the experiences. These memories of sorrow, pain, humiliation and hopelessness come at a cost to the individual; the impacts are both individual and intergenerational, and both contemporary and historical. My reflections will make reference to the trauma of racism where it is written on the body, the soul, the mind and the heart, and can literally take the breath away!

Harrison’s intervention includes a letter she writes to her four-year-old self, signed ‘Philomena (aged 70), England, 2022’. Harrison’s article focuses our minds and hearts on sitting with discomfort. Harrison asks: who is sitting with this discomfort? Who needs to take responsibility for that discomfort? Who has to live with that discomfort and what is the impact? Who has to take action? How might the challenges be formulated? Harrison insists that we must address the question of whose responsibility is the action or the challenge. Harrison takes us through an exploration of ‘being and becoming witnesses’ and ‘healing and resistance’. Harrison draws on the Haudenosaunce tribal beliefs of the notions of the Clouded Mind and the Good Mind, and concludes with nine ‘ways of looking towards transcending the barriers created by our individual experiences of race and racism, alongside other systems of oppression’.

We believe that this Black Lives Matter Special Edition presents a compelling case for anti-racist practices, including models for constructive ways forward that leave no excuse for complicit positions of ignorance, innocence or disavowals. While the collected works in this special edition call for inclusive collective engagement, in accord with Ubuntu, where inhumanity to one is inhumanity to all and the individual is inseparable from the collective, we, as editors, recognise the need for bearing witness beyond the geopolitical cartographies within this special edition. Moving forward, in order for social work to be critical and radical, we must examine our positions of vision and heighten our anti-racist hypervigilance on contemporary issues of forced migration and closed borders in Europe’s implicated global power relations. Picking up on the International Federation of Social Work’s imperative of indigenous knowledge and situated knowledge, we need to critically examine notions of co-production and remove barriers so that the voices of people with lived experience of social work interventions are at the heart of knowledge productions.

CRSW celebrates ten years of production this year. As a journal, it has cogently aimed to give voice to that very rich variety of lived experience, to foregrounding alternative ways of knowing, being and doing, and to seeking out radical perspectives to guide social work action. Accordingly, #Black Lives Matter.

Notes

2

See Claire Alexander’s 2016 BSA plenary lecture with Anoop Nayak on ‘Researching Race in and Out of the Academy’ (available at: https://vimeo.com/176452879).

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest.

References

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    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Boatswain-Kyte, A., Brotman, S., Callender, T., Dejean, B., Hanley, J., Jivraj, N., Lindor, T., Moran, J., Muir, S. and Puspparajah, D. (2022) ‘We want our own data!’: building Black community accountability in the collection of health data using a Black emancipatory action research approach, Critical and Radical Social Work, 10(2): XXX, doi: 10.1332/204986021X16 530491997004.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
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    • Search Google Scholar
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  • Crenshaw, K., Harris, L.C., HoSang, D.M. and Lipsitz, G. (eds) (2019) Seeing Race Again: Countering Colorblindness across the Disciplines, Oakland, CA: University of California Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Drew, V., Wilson, M.L. and McCarter, S.A. (2022) The overcriminalisation of Black girls: using an intersectional lens to examine the school-to-prison pipeline, Critical and Radical Social Work, 10(2): XXX, doi: 10.1332/204986021X16535461234260.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
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    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Joseph-Salisbury, R., Ashe, S., Alexander, C. and Campion, K. (2021) Race and ethnicity in British sociology, https://britsoc.co.uk/publications/race-and-ethnicity-in-british-sociology/.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
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    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Montenegro, M. and Pujol, J. (2022) Cultural transformation of university social work curricula: Black Lives Matter and the Spanish colonial past, Critical and Radical Social Work, 10(2): XXX, doi: 10.1332/204986021X16530442276819.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Nayak, S. (2022) An intersectional model of reflection: is social work fit for purpose in an intersectionally racist world?, Critical and Radical Social Work, 10(2): XXX, doi: 10.1332/204986021X16555682461270.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Pentaris, P., Raja, M., Hanna, S. and Oresanya, A. (2022) Recentring anti-racist practice in social work education and training in England: a qualitative study, Critical and Radical Social Work, 10(2): XXX, doi: 10.1332/204986022X16547711540466.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sociological Research Online (1999) The Stephen Lawrence Murder and the Macpherson Inquiry and report, Sociological Research Online, 4(1: Rapid Response), https://journals.sagepub.com/sro/collections/rapid-response/4-1

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tampa, V. (2020) As social workers, we must do more than stand in solidarity with black people, The Guardian, 20 October, www.theguardian.com/society/2020/oct/20/as-social-workers-we-must-do-more-than-stand-in-solidarity-with-black-people.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tedam, P. and Cane, T. (2022) “We started talking about race and racism after George Floyd”: Insights from research into practitioner preparedness for anti-racist social work practice in England, Critical and Radical Social Work, 10(2): XXX, doi: 10.1332/204986022X16547711540394

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Udonsi, P. (2022) Young, gifted and black: the intersectionality of race, intellectual disability and neurodivergence, Critical and Radical Social Work, 10(2): XXX. doi: 10.1332/204986021X16530492120870

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Williams, C. (2020) Politics, preoccupations, pragmatics: a race/ethnicity redux for social work research, European Journal of Social Work, 23(6): 105768. doi: 10.1080/13691457.2020.1751590

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Yassine, L. and Tseris, E. (2022) From rhetoric to action: confronting whiteness in social work and transforming practices, Critical and Radical Social Work, 10(2): XXX, doi: 10.1332/204986021X16531476561337.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Afrouz, R. (2022) Developing inclusive, diverse and collaborative social work education and practice in Australia, Critical and Radical Social Work, 10(2): XXX, doi: 10.1332/204986021X16553760671786.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Atkinson, H., Bardgett, S., Budd, A., Finn, M., Kissane, C., Qureshi, S., Saha, J., Siblon, J. and Sivasundaram, S. (2018) Race, ethnicity & equality in UK history: a report and resource for change, https://files.royalhistsoc.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/10/17205337/RHS_race_report_EMBARGO_0001_18Oct.pdf.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Boatswain-Kyte, A., Brotman, S., Callender, T., Dejean, B., Hanley, J., Jivraj, N., Lindor, T., Moran, J., Muir, S. and Puspparajah, D. (2022) ‘We want our own data!’: building Black community accountability in the collection of health data using a Black emancipatory action research approach, Critical and Radical Social Work, 10(2): XXX, doi: 10.1332/204986021X16 530491997004.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Craig, G., Cole, B. and Ali, N. (2019) The missing dimension. Where is ‘race’ in social policy teaching and learning?, Social Policy Association, https://shura.shu.ac.uk/25124/1/The%20Missing%20Dimension.%20Where%20is%20%27Race%27%20in%20Social%20Policy%20teaching%20%20and%20learning%20.pdf.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Crenshaw, K., Harris, L.C., HoSang, D.M. and Lipsitz, G. (eds) (2019) Seeing Race Again: Countering Colorblindness across the Disciplines, Oakland, CA: University of California Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Drew, V., Wilson, M.L. and McCarter, S.A. (2022) The overcriminalisation of Black girls: using an intersectional lens to examine the school-to-prison pipeline, Critical and Radical Social Work, 10(2): XXX, doi: 10.1332/204986021X16535461234260.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Harrison, P. (2022) Sitting with discomfort: experiencing the power of racism and working to imagine ways forward?, Critical and Radical Social Work, 10(2): XXX, doi: 10.1332/204986021X16533768386813.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Joseph-Salisbury, R., Ashe, S., Alexander, C. and Campion, K. (2021) Race and ethnicity in British sociology, https://britsoc.co.uk/publications/race-and-ethnicity-in-british-sociology/.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lorde, A. (1984 [1977]) The transformation of silence into language and action, in A. Lorde (ed) Sister Outsider: Essays and Speeches, Trumansburg, NY: The Crossing Press, pp 404.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Montenegro, M. and Pujol, J. (2022) Cultural transformation of university social work curricula: Black Lives Matter and the Spanish colonial past, Critical and Radical Social Work, 10(2): XXX, doi: 10.1332/204986021X16530442276819.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Nayak, S. (2022) An intersectional model of reflection: is social work fit for purpose in an intersectionally racist world?, Critical and Radical Social Work, 10(2): XXX, doi: 10.1332/204986021X16555682461270.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Pentaris, P., Raja, M., Hanna, S. and Oresanya, A. (2022) Recentring anti-racist practice in social work education and training in England: a qualitative study, Critical and Radical Social Work, 10(2): XXX, doi: 10.1332/204986022X16547711540466.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sociological Research Online (1999) The Stephen Lawrence Murder and the Macpherson Inquiry and report, Sociological Research Online, 4(1: Rapid Response), https://journals.sagepub.com/sro/collections/rapid-response/4-1

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tampa, V. (2020) As social workers, we must do more than stand in solidarity with black people, The Guardian, 20 October, www.theguardian.com/society/2020/oct/20/as-social-workers-we-must-do-more-than-stand-in-solidarity-with-black-people.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tedam, P. and Cane, T. (2022) “We started talking about race and racism after George Floyd”: Insights from research into practitioner preparedness for anti-racist social work practice in England, Critical and Radical Social Work, 10(2): XXX, doi: 10.1332/204986022X16547711540394

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Udonsi, P. (2022) Young, gifted and black: the intersectionality of race, intellectual disability and neurodivergence, Critical and Radical Social Work, 10(2): XXX. doi: 10.1332/204986021X16530492120870

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Williams, C. (2020) Politics, preoccupations, pragmatics: a race/ethnicity redux for social work research, European Journal of Social Work, 23(6): 105768. doi: 10.1080/13691457.2020.1751590

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Yassine, L. and Tseris, E. (2022) From rhetoric to action: confronting whiteness in social work and transforming practices, Critical and Radical Social Work, 10(2): XXX, doi: 10.1332/204986021X16531476561337.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 1 University of Salford, UK
  • | 2 Bangor University, UK

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